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Table 1 Baseline characteristics across categories of a lifestyle score in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (1991–1996)

From: A favorable lifestyle lowers the risk of coronary artery disease consistently across strata of non-modifiable risk factors in a population-based cohort

 Unfavorable Lifestyle
N = 5730
Intermediate Lifestyle
N = 11,757
Favorable
Lifestyle
N = 8846
P-value**
Age, years^57.3 (7.4)58.0 (7.7)58.1 (7.6)< 0.0001
Gender ¤   < 0.0001
Male, %34.636.642.4 
Female, %65.463.457.6 
Education ¤   < 0.0001
Elementary %48.241.235.9 
Secondary %33.836.135.8 
University/college degree, %17.922.628.3 
Parental history of MI, % ¤31.232.631.70.12
History of Hypertension ¤64.260.058.3< 0.0001
History of Diabetes Mellitus ¤5.23.53.8< 0.0001
Body-mass Index, kg/m2 ^27.3 (5.2)25.4 (3.6)25.0 (2.9)< 0.0001
Lipid Levels*    
LDL Cholesterol, mg/dl^4.24 (1.03)4.16 (0.99)4.14 (0.97)0.034
HDL Cholesterol, mg/dl^1.30 (0.34)1.40 0.38)1.42 0.37)< 0.0001
Triglycerides, mg/dl #1.31 (0.97–1.82)1.15 (0.87–1.59)1.09 (0.82–1.51)0.0001
Lipid-lowering Medication, % ¤2.32.22.10.67
C-Reactive Protein* #1.9 (0.9–4.2)1.3 (0.7–2.7)1.1 (0.6–2.2)0.0001
HbA1C* #4.9 (4.6–5.3)4.8 (4.5–5.1)4.7 (4.4–5.0)0.23
  1. * Only subjects from the MDC cardiovascular cohort (N = 4995)
  2. ^Continuous variables are expressed as mean values with standard deviation in parenthesis. Differences in mean values were tested using one-way ANOVA
  3. #Skewed continuous values are expressed as median with interquartile range in parenthesis. Differences in median were tested using Kruskal-Wallis ranksum test
  4. ¤ The distribution of subjects across the categorical variables are expressed as frequency (%). The difference in distribution was tested using the chi-square test
  5. ** P-values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant