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Table 1 Cross-tabulation of physical activity levels with sociodemographic characteristics, clinical parameters, EQ-5D Utility Index and EQ-VAS scores of the sample (n = 932), and the p-values of the sociodemographic variables associated with physical activity in a univariate logistic regression analysis

From: Patterns of physical activity and health-related quality of life amongst patients with multimorbidity in a multi-ethnic Asian population

 Physical Activity Levelp-value of variable in a logistic regression analysis
Insufficiently ActiveSufficiently Active
n%n%p
Age (in years)
 Less than 556813.64610.7ref
 55 to less than 6517034.015836.80.59
 65 to less than 7518737.417340.30.57
 75 and above7515.05212.10.72
Gender
 Male27555.023755.2ref
 Female22545.019244.80.94
Ethnicity
 Chinese42384.634580.4ref
 Malay346.8358.20.39
 Indian367.2409.30.51
 Others71.492.10.49
Education Level
 No formal education9318.67717.9ref
 Primary/PSLE16432.812930.10.88
 Secondary/‘N’ Level /‘O’ Level16232.415335.70.60
 Post-secondary (Diploma/‘A’ Level/Degree/Masters/PhD)8116.27016.30.70
Monthly Household Income (SGD)ab
 Below $200017548.316550.0ref
 $2000 - $39997921.88124.50.68
 $4000 - $59995414.94413.30.62
 $6000 - $9999318.6288.50.82
 $10,000 and above236.4123.60.15
Housing Type
 1/2/3 room HDB flat9919.89522.2ref
 4-room HDB flat21743.517039.70.10
 5-room/Executive HDB flat/HUDC12725.510624.80.23
 Private Flats/Condominium/Landed Property/Terrace/Bungalow5611.25713.30.67
 Physical Activity
Insufficiently ActiveSufficiently Active
n%MeanS.D.n%MeanS.D.
HbA1c 
 Normal (<  7%)20741.56.40.419044.46.30.4
 High (i.e., ≥ 7% and above)29258.58.11.223855.68.11.2
LDL-C 
 Normal (<  2.60 mmol/L)39881.92.00.433478.42.00.4
 High (i.e., ≥ 2.60 mmol/L)8818.13.20.59221.63.20.6
Body Mass Index (International Recommendation)
 Normal (≥18.5 & < 25)16034.022.71.517843.022.81.6
 Overweight/Obese (≥ 25)31166.029.03.423657.028.93.4
Body Mass Index (Asian Recommendation)
 Normal (≥18.5 & < 23)8217.421.51.18821.321.431.1
 Overweight/Obese (≥ 23)38982.628.03.632678.727.573.6
Blood Pressure
 Normal (i.e. sBP < 140 & dBP < 90)38376.833578.1
 High (i.e. sBP/dBP ≥ 140/90)11623.29421.9
EQ-5D Mobility
 No problems with mobility40981.838188.8
 Endorses problems with mobility9118.24811.2
EQ-5D Self-care
 No problems with self-care48296.442398.6
 Endorses problems with self-care183.661.4
EQ-5D Usual activities
 No problems with usual activities47294.441997.7
 Endorses problems with usual activities285.6102.3
EQ-5D Pain/Discomfort
 No pain/discomfort35971.832575.8
 Endorses having pain/discomfort14128.210424.2
EQ-5D Anxiety/Depression
 No anxiety/depression41683.238389.3
 Endorses having anxiety/depresison8416.84610.7
EQ-5D Index5000.90.24290.90.1
EQ-VAS50071.515.942975.914.6
  1. A Level Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level, dBP Diastolic blood pressure, EQ-5D European Quality of Life −5 Dimension, EQ-VAS European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, HbA1C Haemoglobin A1C, HDB Housing Development Board, HUDC Housing and Urban Development CompanyLDL-C Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, N Level Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Normal (Academic) Level, O Level General Certificate of Education: Ordinary Level, PSLE Primary School Leaving Examination, sBP Systolic blood pressure, SGD Singapore Dollar
  2. aDenotes monthly household income in Singapore dollars in 1 month before participation
  3. b238 respondents refused to provide information on their income