|Can be developed through meditation and designed to become self-aware of own reactions. MT could be delivered via professional counselling (e.g. psychologist) at subsidised cost and/or free online materials.||Cope with cigarette cravings, urges, and stress (can all present as significant barriers to quit smoking).||[29, 30]||Cost of professional support. However, there are free online materials.|
|A counselling approach used to help a smoker resolve uncertainty between wanting to smoke and quit. Quitline offers a free service.||To help smokers who are thinking of quitting increase and maintain their level of motivation, confidence, and self-belief to quit.||[31,32,33].||Quitline is a professional support telephone service,which provides free motivational interviewing.|
|Developing a clear and specific plan of how quitting will happen, e.g. peer support for stressful periods. Could be delivered with the help of professional support, to help break-down steps.||Break down steps to quitting, makes goals more achievable, which builds confidence, self-belief and motivation to quit.||[23, 34,35,36]||Relatively inexpensive. Professional support can|
help with breaking down steps.
|Places or groups where smoking does not happen, e.g. sports clubs.||More healthful social networks and relationships that can help reinvent a non-smoker identity. Face fewer smoking triggers.||.||No financial costs. Decision may be made to leave behind friends, because they smoke.|
|Mobile Phone Apps||As an example, Text2Quit is a mobile phone text message app that includes social support, tracking progress, and giving tips on cravings .||Tailor messages for user and send timely messages. Tools for self-monitoring, and reminders. Helps cope with cravings and can improve self-esteem, self-belief, confidence, and motivation to quit.||[38, 39]||Access to Smartphone. Knowledge and ability to download mobile phone apps. Cost of app. Can connect to support groups.|
|Smokers contemplating quitting, meeting together. Participants offer emotional support and encouragement to quit. Trained ex-smoker can be included to act as a group facilitator/peer mentor.||Enhance self-esteem and lessen stress. Building self-belief, confidence and motivation to quit. Trained ex-smoker facilitator is a role model, that helps build self-belief in quitting.||[40, 41]||May require attending multiple support group sessions|