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Table 2 By-Group (Intervention vs. Waitlist Control Child Participants, ages 4- to 10-Years Old) Effects of the 10-Week Simple Suppers Intervention: Difference at Post-Intervention (T1) Controlling for Baseline (T0) Values

From: Child diet and health outcomes of the simple suppers program: a 10-week, 2-group quasi-experimental family meals trial

OutcomesInterventionWaitlist ControlβP-Value95% CI
T0T1ΔT0T1Δ
Dietary Intakea,b,c
 Total Fruitd (servings/day)1.68 (1.2)1.71 (1.8)0.04 (2.1)1.86 (1.8)1.48 (1.2)-0.38 (1.9)0.420.38(-0.83, 2.11)
 Whole Fruit (servings/day)1.15 (0.9)1.33 (1.7)0.18 (1.8)1.39 (1.5)1.12 (1.2)-0.27 (1.7)0.450.15(-0.40, 2.42)
 Total Vegetable (servings/day)1.69 (1.4)2.05 (1.6)0.36 (1.4)1.70 (1.6)1.60 (1.7)-0.10 (2.8)0.460.41(-0.76, 1.84)
 Sugar-Sweetened Beverage (servings/day)0.41 (0.6)0.39 (0.7)-0.02 (0.9)0.55 (0.8)0.48 (0.7)-0.07 (0.8)0.050.14(-0.93, 0.14)
 Healthy Eating Index Total Score (0-100)52.24 (10.5)53.21 (11.6)0.97 (16.1)53.25 (11.4)55.81 (9.4)2.56 (14.6)-1.590.86(-9.37, 11.12)
Anthropometrics and Biometrics
 Body Mass Index z-scoree0.68 (1.1)0.52 (1.2)-0.16 (0.6)0.74 (1.3)0.68 (1.4)-0.06 (0.3)-0.100.26(-0.39, 0.11)
 Weight Statusf,g, n (%)
  Underweight1 (1.1)2 (2.3)1 (1.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)17.20.04(1.1, 262.2)
  Normal Weight56 (64.4)63 (72.4)7 (8.0)25 (64.1)24 (61.5)-1 (2.6)
  Overweight17 (19.5)10 (11.5)-7 (8.0)3 (7.7)4 (10.3)1 (2.6)
  Obese13 (14.9)12 (13.8)-1 (1.1)11 (28.2)11 (28.2)0 (0.0)
 Waist Circumference z-scoree0.76 (0.9)0.79 (0.9)0.03 (0.6)0.71 (1.3)0.71 (1.2)0.00 (1.2)0.030.10(-0.39, 0.06)
 Systolic Blood Pressure z-scoree1.41 (1.3)1.27 (1.4)-0.14 (1.6)1.55 (1.1)1.71 (1.6)0.16 (1.9)-0.300.21(-0.89, 0.20)
 Diastolic Blood Pressure z-scoree1.31 (1.4)1.09 (1.4)-0.22 (1.9)1.10 (1.3)1.39 (1.8)0.29 (2.1)-0.510.88(-0.91, 0.78)
Food Preparation Skill Abilityc,h, mean (SD)22.03 (5.1)26.89 (4.6)4.86 (5.1)23.21 (4.8)22.85 (5.5)-0.36 (4.2)5.22<0.001(2.88, 6.58)
Family Meals (meals/week)i, mean (SD)
 Family dinner frequency4.77 (2.1)4.42 (2.1)-0.35 (2.8)5.17 (1.5)4.02 (2.0)-1.15 (2.4)0.800.39(-0.63, 1.59)
 Family breakfast frequency2.66 (2.3)2.75 (2.4)0.09 (3.0)2.73 (2.3)2.80 (2.4)0.07 (3.4)0.160.98(-1.25, 1.23)
 Family meal with TV1.93 (1.9)2.15 (2.2)0.22 (2.4)2.50 (2.2)2.94 (2.5)0.44 (2.2)-0.220.04(-2.06, -0.02)
 Family meals in a dining area4.09 (2.4)4.31 (2.2)0.22 (2.4)3.91 (2.6)4.35 (2.5)0.44 (2.2)-0.120.82(-1.31, 1.05)
  1. aDaily intake averaged across caregiver-assisted, nonconsecutive 24-hr dietary recalls collected using USDA five-step multiple-pass method
  2. bParticipant completion of 24-hr dietary recall at T0: 0 recalls (7%); 1 recall (68%); 2 recalls (12%); 3 recalls (13%). Participant completion of 24-hr dietary recall at T1: 0 recalls (39%); 1 recall (58%); 2 recalls (4%); 3 recalls (0%)
  3. cBy-group differences at T1 determined by generalized linear mixed modeling controlling for: cohort; household income; child race, sex, age; group assignment; participant id (family id); baseline value of outcome variable (Y (outcome variable)= outcome at T1)
  4. dTotal fruit= whole fruit + 100% fruit juice
  5. eBy-group differences at T1 determined by generalized linear mixed modeling controlling for: cohort; household income; child race; group assignment; participant id (family id); baseline value of outcome variable (Y (outcome variable)= outcome at T1)
  6. fMixed-effects ordinal regression model to test for differences in change in weight status category (1=obese (≥95th percentile), 2=overweight (≥85thpercentile), and 3=healthy weight (5th to <85th percentile)) between groups at T1; note: children in the underweight (<5th percentile) category (n=1 at T0 and n=2 at T1) were collapsed into the healthy weight group)
  7. gOdds ratio (OR) and corresponding OR confidence intervals presented
  8. hThe stem statement was: “When we prepare food at home, my child is able to…”. Questions were situated on a 4-point scale (1=Strongly Disagree (1pt); 4=Strongly Agree (4pt)). A sum score was calculated (1-32)
  9. iBy-group differences determined by generalized linear modeling controlling for: cohort; household income; caregiver race, sex, and age; oldest child race, sex, and age; baseline value; group assignment (Y (outcome variable)= outcome at T1)
  10. All p-values that are signicant (<0.05) are bolded.