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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The associations between screen time-based sedentary behavior and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

PaperCountryStudy designSample sizeAgeDepression indicatorSedentary behavior indicatorReference categoriesMethodological quality score
Primack et al.2009 [26]USACohort4142Mean(SD) age at follow-up: 21.8(1.8) years oldCES-D (20-item)Self-report hours of exposure to electronic mediaContinuousStrong
Teychenne et al. 2010 [27]AustraliaCross-sectional364518–45 years oldCES-D (10-item)Self-reported sitting time1 hStrong
Vallance et al.2010 [28]AustraliaCross-sectional2862Mean(SD) age: 45.7(13.7) years oldPHQ-9ActiGraph AM-7164 accelerometer> 4 hStrong
Lucas et al. 2011 [29]USACohort49,82130–55 years oldClinical depressionSelf-reported sitting time1 hWeak
Thomée et al. 2012 [30]SwedenCohort416320–24 years oldSelf-reported symptoms of depressionSelf-report computer time2 hStrong
Breland et al. 2013 [31]USACross-sectional53518–96 years oldPHQ-8Self-reported screen time> 4 hWeak
Sloan et al. 2013 [32]SingaporeCross-sectional433718–79 years oldGHQ-12GPAQ v22 hStrong
Van et al.2013 [33]AustraliaCohort895050–55 years oldCES-D (10-item)Self-reported sitting time> 4 hModerate
Arredondo et al.2013 [34]USACross-sectional39743.4 ± 16.9 years oldPHQ-9GPAQContinuousStrong
Feng et al. 2014 [35]ChinaCross-sectional110618.9 ± 0.9 years oldSDSSelf-reported sitting time2 hStrong
Wu et al. 2015 [36]ChinaCross-sectional4747Mean(SD) age: 19.26(1.40) years oldCES-DSelf-reported screen time2 hStrong
Sui et al. 2015 [37]ChinaCohort480218–80 years oldCES-D (10-item)Self-reported TV or riding in a car timeContinuousModerate
Wu et al. 2016 [38]ChinaCross-sectional2521Mean(SD) age: 18.43(0.96) years oldCES-D (20-item)Self-reported screen time2 hStrong
Padmapriya et al. 2016 [39]SingaporeCohort114430.7 ± 5.1 years oldEPDSSelf-reported sitting time> 4 hStrong
Madhav et al.2017 [40]USACross-sectional320120–74 years oldPHQ-9Self-reported TV or computer time> 4 hStrong
Barros et al.2017 [41]BrazilCross-sectional49,02518–59 years oldPHQ-9Self-reported TV time> 4 hStrong
Nam et al.2017 [42]South KoreaCross-sectional414520 years old and overPHQ-9Self-reported sitting time> 4 hStrong
Hallgren et al. 2018 [43]SwedenCohort40,569Mean(SD) age: 51.6(16.1) years oldClinical diagnosisSelf-reported screen time> 4 hModerate
Stubbs et al. 2018 [44]China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South AfricaCross-sectional42,469Mean(SD) age: 43.8(14.4)years oldWMHCIDISelf-reported screen time> 4 hStrong