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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The associations between screen time-based sedentary behavior and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Paper Country Study design Sample size Age Depression indicator Sedentary behavior indicator Reference categories Methodological quality score
Primack et al.2009 [26] USA Cohort 4142 Mean(SD) age at follow-up: 21.8(1.8) years old CES-D (20-item) Self-report hours of exposure to electronic media Continuous Strong
Teychenne et al. 2010 [27] Australia Cross-sectional 3645 18–45 years old CES-D (10-item) Self-reported sitting time 1 h Strong
Vallance et al.2010 [28] Australia Cross-sectional 2862 Mean(SD) age: 45.7(13.7) years old PHQ-9 ActiGraph AM-7164 accelerometer > 4 h Strong
Lucas et al. 2011 [29] USA Cohort 49,821 30–55 years old Clinical depression Self-reported sitting time 1 h Weak
Thomée et al. 2012 [30] Sweden Cohort 4163 20–24 years old Self-reported symptoms of depression Self-report computer time 2 h Strong
Breland et al. 2013 [31] USA Cross-sectional 535 18–96 years old PHQ-8 Self-reported screen time > 4 h Weak
Sloan et al. 2013 [32] Singapore Cross-sectional 4337 18–79 years old GHQ-12 GPAQ v2 2 h Strong
Van et al.2013 [33] Australia Cohort 8950 50–55 years old CES-D (10-item) Self-reported sitting time > 4 h Moderate
Arredondo et al.2013 [34] USA Cross-sectional 397 43.4 ± 16.9 years old PHQ-9 GPAQ Continuous Strong
Feng et al. 2014 [35] China Cross-sectional 1106 18.9 ± 0.9 years old SDS Self-reported sitting time 2 h Strong
Wu et al. 2015 [36] China Cross-sectional 4747 Mean(SD) age: 19.26(1.40) years old CES-D Self-reported screen time 2 h Strong
Sui et al. 2015 [37] China Cohort 4802 18–80 years old CES-D (10-item) Self-reported TV or riding in a car time Continuous Moderate
Wu et al. 2016 [38] China Cross-sectional 2521 Mean(SD) age: 18.43(0.96) years old CES-D (20-item) Self-reported screen time 2 h Strong
Padmapriya et al. 2016 [39] Singapore Cohort 1144 30.7 ± 5.1 years old EPDS Self-reported sitting time > 4 h Strong
Madhav et al.2017 [40] USA Cross-sectional 3201 20–74 years old PHQ-9 Self-reported TV or computer time > 4 h Strong
Barros et al.2017 [41] Brazil Cross-sectional 49,025 18–59 years old PHQ-9 Self-reported TV time > 4 h Strong
Nam et al.2017 [42] South Korea Cross-sectional 4145 20 years old and over PHQ-9 Self-reported sitting time > 4 h Strong
Hallgren et al. 2018 [43] Sweden Cohort 40,569 Mean(SD) age: 51.6(16.1) years old Clinical diagnosis Self-reported screen time > 4 h Moderate
Stubbs et al. 2018 [44] China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa Cross-sectional 42,469 Mean(SD) age: 43.8(14.4)years old WMHCIDI Self-reported screen time > 4 h Strong