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Table 4 Linear Regression of serum cholesterol parameters on pubertal stage among boys adjusted for age and behavioral determinants (n = 6531)

From: Age, maturation and serum lipid parameters: findings from the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents

  TC [mg/dL]HDL-C [mg/dL]Non-HDL-C [mg/dL]
Model 1: unadjustedR20.040.040.01
 Early/mid-pubertyβ (S.E.)2.7 (1.2) *3.0 (0.5) ***−0.3 (1.1)
 Mature/advanced pubertyβ (S.E.)−10.8 (0.9) ***−4.5 (0.4) ***−6.3 (0.9) ***
Model 2: adj. For ageR20.050.110.01
 Early/mid-pubertyβ (S.E.)−4.3 (1.4) *−1.9 (0.7) *−2.4 (1.4)
 Mature/advanced pubertyβ (S.E.)−18.7 (1.8) ***−6.8 (1.0) ***−11.8 (1.8) ***
 Ageβ (S.E.)0.2 (0.3)−0.9 (0.2)***1.2 (0.4)*
 Age (squared)β (S.E.)−0.1 (0.0)*− 0.1 (0.0)***0.1 (0.0)*
Model 3: adj. For age, BMIR20.060.160.05
 Early/mid-pubertyβ (S.E.)−4.5 (1.4) *−1.6 (0.7) *−2.9 (1.4) *
 Mature/advanced pubertyβ (S.E.)−19.5 (1.8) ***−5.9 (1.0) ***−13.6 (1.7) ***
 Ageβ (S.E.)0.3 (0.3)−1.1 (0.2)***1.4 (0.3)***
 Age (squared)β (S.E.)−0.1 (0.0)*− 0.2 (0.0)***0.1 (0.0)*
 BMIβ (S.E.)2.5 (0.4)***−2.9 (0.2)***5.4 (0.4)***
Model 4: adj. For age, BMI and behavioral determinantsR20.060.160.05
 Early/mid-pubertyβ (S.E.)−4.4 (1.4)*−1.6 (0.7) *−2.8 (1.4)
 Mature/advanced pubertyβ (S.E.)−19.4 (1.8) ***−5.9 (1.0) ***−13.6 (1.8) ***
 Ageβ (S.E.)0.2 (0.4)−1.1 (0.2)***1.2 (0.4)*
 Age (squared)β (S.E.)−0.1 (0.0)*−0.2 (0.0)***0.1 (0.0)*
 BMIβ (S.E.)2.4 (0.4)***−2.9 (0.2)***5.3 (0.4)***
 Smoking (yes vs. no)β (S.E.)1.5 (1.6)−0.8 (0.6)2.3 (1.6)
 Healthy food diversity indexβ (S.E.)1.4 (2.5)−0.6 (1.2)2.0 (2.6)
 Low physical activityβ (S.E.)1.0 (1.0)−0.5 (0.4)1.5 (0.9)
 Middle physical activityβ (S.E.)0.3 (1.0)−0.4 (0.4)0.7 (0.9)
  1. Model 2: adjusted for age (centred and squared)
  2. Model 3: adjusted for age (centred and squared) and BMI (kg/m2, z-score)
  3. Model 4: adjusted for age (centred and squared), BMI (kg/m2, z-score), smoking, healthy food diversity index and physical activity
  4. β Regression coefficient, S.E. Standard error, R2 proportion of variance explained by the model, Reference = prepubescent stage
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001, ***p < 0.0001