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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (n = 13,676)

From: Age, maturation and serum lipid parameters: findings from the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents

% or Mean (95%-CI)N (missing)1–9 years10–13 years14–17 years
Boys (n) 352919091749
 Pubertal Stagea   
  Prepubescent n.a.26.5 (24.2–28.9)0.1 (0.0–0.4)
  Early/mid-puberty n.a.51.8 (49.2–54.3)5.7 (4.6–7.0)
  Mature/advanced puberty n.a.21.7 (19.6–24.0)94.3 (92.9–95.4)
 Dyslipidemiab   
  TC ≥ 200 [mg/dL] 8.0 (7.0–9.1)10.2 (8.6–12.0)4.8 (3.8–5.9)
  HDL-C < 40 [mg/dL] 10.9 (9.6–12.3)6.3 (5.2–7.7)15.1 (13.2–17.3)
  Non-HDL-C ≥ 145 [mg/dL] 7.2 (6.2–8.3)8.8 (7.4–10.5)6.1 (5.1–7.4)
 Anthropometry    
  Height (cm)16114.5 (113.9–115.1)153.3 (152.7–153.8)175.4 (174.9–175.8)
  Weight (kg)2322.2 (21.9–22.4)45.8 (45.1–46.5)67.4 (66.6–68.1)
  Body Mass Index (kg/m2)3416.3 (16.3–16.4)19.2 (19.0–19.4)21.8 (21.6–22.0)
  Obesityc24 (582)3.4 (2.9–4.1)4.7 (3.7–6.0)6.5 (5.4–7.8)
 Physical Activity/week334   
  Low 26.8 (24.9–28.8)25.2 (22.8–27.8)38.1 (35.6–40.6)
  Middle 32.6 (30.6–34.6)36.2 (33.4–39.0)36.9 (34.7–39.2)
  High 40.6 (38.6–42.7)38.6 (35.8–41.6)25.0 (23.0–27.2)
 Healthy Food Diversity Index3270.55 (0.54–0.56)0.52 (0.51–0.52)0.48 (0.47–0.49)
 Smoking40n.a.3.9 (2.8–5.3)30.8 (28.4–33.3)
 Immigration background2316.5 (14.3–19.0)18.8 (16.1–21.9)17.0 (14.5–19.7)
Girls (n) 338418051300
 Pubertal Stagea   
  Prepubescent n.a.22.7 (20.5–25.1)
  Early/mid-puberty n.a.30.2 (27.9–32.7)3.5 (2.6–4.7)
  Mature/advanced puberty n.a.47.0 (44.6–49.4)96.5 (95.3–97.4)
 Dyslipidemiab   
  TC ≥ 200 [mg/dL] 10.7 (9.5–12.1)11.0 (9.6–12.5)9.6 (7.8–11.7)
  HDL-C < 40 [mg/dL] 12.8 (11.5–14.3)7.5 (6.2–9.1)5.6 (4.2–7.4)
  Non-HDL-C ≥ 145 [mg/dL] 10.4 (9.1–11.8)8.7 (7.3–10.2)6.8 (5.2–8.8)
 Anthropometry
  Height (cm)6113.5 (113.0–114.1)153.7 (153.3–154.2)164.9 (164.5–165.3)
  Weight (kg)2521.6 (21.4–21.8)46.8 (46.1–47.5)59.7 (58.9–60.5)
  Body Mass Index (kg/m2)3016.2 (16.1–16.2)19.6 (19.3–19.8)21.9 (21.7–22.2)
  Obesityc26 (577)3.5 (2.7–4.4)4.7 (3.8–6.0)5.5 (4.2–7.1)
 Physical Activity/week332   
  Low 26.6 (24.6–28.8)40.5 (38.1–43.0)61.2 (58.0–64.3)
  Middle 36.9 (34.8–38.9)31.9 (29.6–34.3)25.4 (22.5–28.5)
  High 36.5 (34.3–38.8)27.6 (25.2–30.1)13.4 (11.3–15.7)
 Healthy Food Diversity Index3080.56 (0.55–0.56)0.55 (0.54–0.56)0.54 (0.53–0.55)
 Smoking20n.a.3.2 (2.3–4.4)24.6 (22.0–27.3)
 Immigration background3616.3 (14.2–18.7)18.1 (15.5–21.1)19.1 (16.0–22.5)
  1. n.a. not assessed
  2. aThe stage of puberty defined according to Tanner stage was only collected for boys and girls aged 10 years and older: prepubescent = stage 1, early/mid-puberty = stage 2–3, and mature/advanced puberty = stage 4–6
  3. baccording the Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents [7]
  4. cObesity defined according to International Obesity Task Force [28]; not assessed at the age of 1–2 years (boys: N = 558, girls: N = 551)