Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (n = 13,676)

From: Age, maturation and serum lipid parameters: findings from the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents

% or Mean (95%-CI)

N (missing)

1–9 years

10–13 years

14–17 years

Boys (n)

 

3529

1909

1749

 Pubertal Stagea

   

  Prepubescent

 

n.a.

26.5 (24.2–28.9)

0.1 (0.0–0.4)

  Early/mid-puberty

 

n.a.

51.8 (49.2–54.3)

5.7 (4.6–7.0)

  Mature/advanced puberty

 

n.a.

21.7 (19.6–24.0)

94.3 (92.9–95.4)

 Dyslipidemiab

   

  TC ≥ 200 [mg/dL]

 

8.0 (7.0–9.1)

10.2 (8.6–12.0)

4.8 (3.8–5.9)

  HDL-C < 40 [mg/dL]

 

10.9 (9.6–12.3)

6.3 (5.2–7.7)

15.1 (13.2–17.3)

  Non-HDL-C ≥ 145 [mg/dL]

 

7.2 (6.2–8.3)

8.8 (7.4–10.5)

6.1 (5.1–7.4)

 Anthropometry

    

  Height (cm)

16

114.5 (113.9–115.1)

153.3 (152.7–153.8)

175.4 (174.9–175.8)

  Weight (kg)

23

22.2 (21.9–22.4)

45.8 (45.1–46.5)

67.4 (66.6–68.1)

  Body Mass Index (kg/m2)

34

16.3 (16.3–16.4)

19.2 (19.0–19.4)

21.8 (21.6–22.0)

  Obesityc

24 (582)

3.4 (2.9–4.1)

4.7 (3.7–6.0)

6.5 (5.4–7.8)

 Physical Activity/week

334

   

  Low

 

26.8 (24.9–28.8)

25.2 (22.8–27.8)

38.1 (35.6–40.6)

  Middle

 

32.6 (30.6–34.6)

36.2 (33.4–39.0)

36.9 (34.7–39.2)

  High

 

40.6 (38.6–42.7)

38.6 (35.8–41.6)

25.0 (23.0–27.2)

 Healthy Food Diversity Index

327

0.55 (0.54–0.56)

0.52 (0.51–0.52)

0.48 (0.47–0.49)

 Smoking

40

n.a.

3.9 (2.8–5.3)

30.8 (28.4–33.3)

 Immigration background

23

16.5 (14.3–19.0)

18.8 (16.1–21.9)

17.0 (14.5–19.7)

Girls (n)

 

3384

1805

1300

 Pubertal Stagea

   

  Prepubescent

 

n.a.

22.7 (20.5–25.1)

  Early/mid-puberty

 

n.a.

30.2 (27.9–32.7)

3.5 (2.6–4.7)

  Mature/advanced puberty

 

n.a.

47.0 (44.6–49.4)

96.5 (95.3–97.4)

 Dyslipidemiab

   

  TC ≥ 200 [mg/dL]

 

10.7 (9.5–12.1)

11.0 (9.6–12.5)

9.6 (7.8–11.7)

  HDL-C < 40 [mg/dL]

 

12.8 (11.5–14.3)

7.5 (6.2–9.1)

5.6 (4.2–7.4)

  Non-HDL-C ≥ 145 [mg/dL]

 

10.4 (9.1–11.8)

8.7 (7.3–10.2)

6.8 (5.2–8.8)

 Anthropometry

  Height (cm)

6

113.5 (113.0–114.1)

153.7 (153.3–154.2)

164.9 (164.5–165.3)

  Weight (kg)

25

21.6 (21.4–21.8)

46.8 (46.1–47.5)

59.7 (58.9–60.5)

  Body Mass Index (kg/m2)

30

16.2 (16.1–16.2)

19.6 (19.3–19.8)

21.9 (21.7–22.2)

  Obesityc

26 (577)

3.5 (2.7–4.4)

4.7 (3.8–6.0)

5.5 (4.2–7.1)

 Physical Activity/week

332

   

  Low

 

26.6 (24.6–28.8)

40.5 (38.1–43.0)

61.2 (58.0–64.3)

  Middle

 

36.9 (34.8–38.9)

31.9 (29.6–34.3)

25.4 (22.5–28.5)

  High

 

36.5 (34.3–38.8)

27.6 (25.2–30.1)

13.4 (11.3–15.7)

 Healthy Food Diversity Index

308

0.56 (0.55–0.56)

0.55 (0.54–0.56)

0.54 (0.53–0.55)

 Smoking

20

n.a.

3.2 (2.3–4.4)

24.6 (22.0–27.3)

 Immigration background

36

16.3 (14.2–18.7)

18.1 (15.5–21.1)

19.1 (16.0–22.5)

  1. n.a. not assessed
  2. aThe stage of puberty defined according to Tanner stage was only collected for boys and girls aged 10 years and older: prepubescent = stage 1, early/mid-puberty = stage 2–3, and mature/advanced puberty = stage 4–6
  3. baccording the Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents [7]
  4. cObesity defined according to International Obesity Task Force [28]; not assessed at the age of 1–2 years (boys: N = 558, girls: N = 551)