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Table 1 Description of symptoms, causes, treatments, and prevention methods for anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies in humans

From: Comparative knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies in three districts of northern Tanzania

DiseaseSymptomsCausesTreatmentPrevention
AnthraxSmall blisters or itchy bumps;
Painless ulcer after blister;
High fever/chills;
Chest pain;
Cough;
Headache;
Confusion/dizziness;
Fatigue;
Aches;
Diarrhea;
Stomach pain/swelling
Inhalation of dust from animal hide or hair
Consumption of undercooked, infected meat;
Skin to open wound contact
Seek medical care as quickly as possible;
Antibiotics are routine treatment
Do not consume undercooked meat;
Do not touch animal carcasses;
Vaccines for humans and animals available
Anthrax scoring (max. of 10 points)0 = 0 points
1–2 correct = 1 point
3 or above correct = 2 points
Observed in humans or animals:
None = 0 points
Humans = 1 point
Animals = 1 point
Both = 2 points
0 = 0 points
1–2 correct = 1 point
3 or above correct = 2 points
0 = 0 points
1 correct = 1 point
Seek professional help:
Yes = 1 point
No = 0 points
None = 0 points
1 correct = 1 point
BrucellosisFever of unknown origin;
Nonspecific and assorted symptoms such as: sweats, weight loss, depression, arthralgias, fatigue, malaise;
Can occur in any organ system of the body
Consuming unpasteurized milk or meat from infected animals;
Direct contact with secretions of infected animals;
Breathing in brucellosis bacteria
Seek immediate consultation from doctor;
Antibiotic treatment regime
Boiling milk before consumption;
Vaccination of livestock;
Protection from dead animal/livestock tissue
Brucellosis scoring (max. of 10 points)0 = 0 points
1–2 correct = 1 point
3 or above correct = 2 points
Observed in humans or animals:
None = 0 points
Humans = 1 point
Animals = 1 point
Both = 2 points
0 = 0 points
1 correct = 1 point
2 or above correct = 2 points
0 = 0 points
1 correct = 1 point
Seek professional help
Yes = 1 point
No = 0 points
None = 0 points
1 correct = 1 point
2 or above correct = 2 points
RabiesFlu-like symptoms;
Fever;
Headache;
Fatigue/weakness;
Acute neurologic syndrome;
Coma
Rabies Virus;
In almost all cases virus is transmitted via bite of infected animal
Post exposure vaccines;
Immune globulin
Vaccination of domestic pets;
No direct contact/handling of wild animals
Rabies scoring (max. of 8 points)0–1 = 0 points
2+ correct = 1 point
Observed in Humans or Animals:
None = 0 points
Humans = 1 point
Animals = 1 point
Both = 2 points
Contact with infected animal = 1 pointHuman: seek professional treatment = 1 point
Animal: kill infected animal = 1 point
Vaccination or no contact with (infected/symptomatic) animals = 1 point
  1. Below the row outlining symptoms, causes and prevention methods, we report the applied scoring system for each category. We assigned scores according to the provided answers and specific disease information provided by Centers For Disease Control and Prevention [35,36,37]