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Table 4 Changes in within-group scores of knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains (n = 63)

From: GReat-Child Trial™ based on social cognitive theory improved knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains among Malaysian overweight and obese children

 ComparisonIntervention groupControl group
Mean (95% CI)p-valueMean (95% CI)p-value
Knowledge scoreT1-T06.8 (6.5,7.1)< 0.001***0.1 (−0.3,0.5)0.508
T2-T06.8 (6.5,7.2)< 0.001***0.4 (−0.2,1.0)0.222
T2-T10.1 (− 0.2,0.3)0.5870.3 (− 0.2,0.7)0.277
Attitudes scoreT1-T012.5 (11.4,13.5)< 0.001***−0.7 (−2.0,0.6)0.286
T2-T09.2 (8.1,10.2)< 0.001***−0.4 (−1.5,0.6)0.407
T2-T1−3.3 (−4.4,-2.2)< 0.001***0.3 (−0.4,0.9)0.412
Practice scoreT1-T010.6 (8.9,12.2)< 0.001***0.5 (−1.0,2.0)0.505
T2-T08.0 (5.3,10.7)< 0.001***0.3 (−1.2,1.8)0.664
T2-T1−2.6 (−4.6,-0.5)0.016*−0.2 (−0.5,0.2)0.259
  1. T0 - Baseline; T1 – post-intervention (thirteenth week); T2 – follow-up (ninth month); ***Statistically significant at p-value < 0.001; *Statistically significant at p-value < 0.05; Repeated measures ANCOVA within group analysis was applied followed by pairwise comparison with confidence interval adjustment; Household income dan baseline variables were controlled by using repeated measures
  2. ANCOVA