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Table 3 Baseline socio-demography, physical characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practices’ scores toward whole grains among children who successfully completed the entire trial (n = 63)

From: GReat-Child Trial™ based on social cognitive theory improved knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains among Malaysian overweight and obese children

 Total (n = 63)Intervention (n = 31)Control (n = 32)p-value
Age; mean ± SD10.6 ± 0.610.7 ± 0.610.6 ± 0.60.882
Sex   0.262
Boys; n (%)33 (52.4)18 (58.1)15 (46.9) 
Girls; n (%)30 (47.6)13 (41.9)17 (53.1) 
Household income; mean ± SD4052.4 ± 1873.84506.5 ± 2384.93612.5 ± 1054.60.058
Low (< RM2300); n (%)6 (9.5)3(9.7)3 (9.4)0.452
Medium (RM2300-RM5599); n (%)50 (79.4)23 (74.2)27 (84.4) 
High (≥RM5600); n (%)7 (11.1)5 (16.1)2 (6.2) 
Physical characteristics
Weight (kg); mean ± SD47.8 ± 13.050.4 ± 14.945.2 ± 10.40.486
Height (cm); mean ± SD139.8 ± 7.5142.1 ± 8.2137.5 ± 6.20.093
BMI-for-age z-score; mean ± SD2.2 ± 0.92.3 ± 1.02.1 ± 0.80.324
Knowledge, attitudes and practices’ scores toward whole grain
Knowledge; mean ± SD6.9 ± 2.06.7 ± 1.97.0 ± 2.10.610
Attitudes; mean ± SD45.4 ± 5.645.4 ± 5.545.4 ± 5.80.993
Practices; mean ± SD16.7 ± 2.216.7 ± 2.016.8 ± 2.40.852
  1. Age, weight, height, BMI-for-age z-score, household income (in mean ± SD), knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains variables were tested using Independent t-test; Sex and household income (in categories) variables were tested using Chi-square test; SD: standard deviation; Full marks for knowledge domain = 15 marks; Full marks for attitudes domain = 75 marks; Full marks for practice domain = 50 marks