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Table 1 Social Cognitive Theory concepts and application for GReat-Child trial

From: GReat-Child Trial™ based on social cognitive theory improved knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains among Malaysian overweight and obese children

SCT constructsApplicationLearning activities
Behavioral Domain
Behavioral capabilityProvided whole grain and healthy eating knowledge.• Participation in whole grain and healthy balanced diet quiz in six times of 30-min nutrition education classes.
• Children were required to draw the healthy plate model on the blackboard.
• Using food labels to identify foods as whole grain or refined grains.
• Locating grain food group and grain food items on the Food Guide Pyramid.
• Individual diet counselling for the parents to identify the whole-grain foods, as well as the advantages of whole grain consumption.
Food choiceServed a variety of whole grain foods on a daily basis.• Tasting whole grain foods for taste, appearance, texture and acceptance.
• Researcher introducing variety of whole-grain food during school delivery and let the children familiarizing with it.
• Identifying whole grain and healthy balanced diet’s labels during individual diet counselling for the parents.
Personal Domain
Self-efficacyProvided practical experiences that emphasized tasting, selecting and preparing whole grain foods.• Whole grain recipe booklet provided to parents during individual diet counselling, to help them prepare and serve whole-grain food at home.
• Handy tips included in the whole grain booklet during individual diet counselling, to show the parents easier way to achieve the recommendation to eat half of the grains as whole grain.
• Learning about menu planning for balanced diet during six 30-min nutrition education and individual diet counselling.
• Reading food and nutrition labels on the packaging of whole grain foods, to overcome barriers in selecting and identifying the whole-grain foods.
ReinforcementsChildren were rewarded and received praise when they correctly answer questions on whole-grain and healthy eating diet.• Participation in whole grain and healthy balanced diet quiz during nutrition education classes.
Environmental Domain
Observational learningServed a variety of whole grain foods on a daily basis.• Children observed how to prepare a convenient whole grain breakfast.
• Whole grain food recipes provided to parents.
AvailabilityProvided information to encourage the parents to increase availability of whole-grain foods and healthy diet at home.• Individual diet counselling and booklet provided to advocate for consumption of more whole grain foods, as well as balanced diet at home.