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Table 1 Summary information about the source materials used

From: Systematic review on HIV situation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

No.DocumentsType of documentKey findingsObjectives
1EPHI, 2018aReport• HIV prevalence Table 2 and Figure 11
2CSA and ICF, 2016Survey• HIV prevalence 3.4% in Addis Ababa
• Men who had sex with non-cohabiting partners is highest in Addis Ababa (26%) than the national average (16%)
• The mean number of lifetime sexual partners reported by men in Addis Ababa (5.2%)
• Women reported using a condom during last sexual intercourse with non-regular partners 41.8% and men 72.4%
• Discordant couples (4.3%)
1, 3
3EPHI, 2018bSurvey• HIV prevalence is 3.1% in Addis Ababa
• VLS of whole country in urban areas is 70.1% (Female 71.7% and Male 66.8%), varies by age, sex, and region,
• Status of the three 90’s in Addis Ababa: 65.2 % for the 1st 90, 63.3 % for the 2nd 90 and 58.2% of all PLHIV
1, 5
4Moher et al., 2015Article• PRISMA Statement-
5CSA and ORC, 2005Survey• HIV prevalence is 4.7% in Addis Ababa1, 3
6CSA and ICF, 2011Survey• HIV prevalence is 5.2% in Addis Ababa1, 3
7EPHI, 2015Report• Figure 1 for HIV prevalence1
8EPHI, 2011Report• Figure 1 for HIV prevalence1
9EPHI, 2014Report• Figure 1 for HIV prevalence1
10EPHI, 2017Report• Figure 1 for HIV prevalence1
11FHAPCO, 2018Report• Behavioural, biomedical and structural interventions
• ART coverage is 74.6%; viral load testing coverage ~60% with 87.5% VLS
• In Addis Ababa, the total number on ART were 94,240 and 3,616 were newly enrolled; retention at 12 months 87%
• Figures 2, 3, 4
1, 5
12EPHA/CDC (2012)Report• Death related to HIV/AIDS in Figure 51
13AAHAPCO, 2017Synthesis• Key drivers of the epidemic; hotspot areas; intervention strategies; challenges on intervention2, 3, 4, 5
14Lakew, 2015Article• 5.7% HIV-positives among mobile workers1, 4
15FMOE, 2012Survey• low level of knowledge, peer pressure, practices of unsafe sex, the proliferation of addictions (shisha, khat, alcohol) and substance abuse, gender–based violence were driving forces for the spread of the epidemic.3, 4, 5
16PSI/E, __Research brief• Non-self-identified (NSI) FSWs to supplement their income to support family or the desire for fashion and luxury goods
• The main barrier to condom use is higher payment, in addition to intimacy and trust with long-term clients
• NSI FSWs felt some polices favor clients and they would be unlikely to get a positive outcome by reporting violence
• NSI FSWs may be more likely to experience violence, but less likely to report it given the hidden nature of their work
17Deyessa et al., 2018Survey• Male users dominated female users at a ratio of 9:1; 3/4 of the IDUs were below the age of 35 years
• The estimated IDUs in Addis Ababa were 4,068
• The majority, 200 (72.5%) of the drug users from Addis Ababa had the habit of reusing needle and syringe
• Of the 177 Addis Ababa residents who claimed to have tested for HIV, 70 (39.5%) disclosed as HIV positive
1, 3 ,4
18Cherie et al., 2012Article• Peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents3
19Mirkuzie (2018)Article• 2% and 4% of the HIV exposed babies were HIV positive by 6 and 18 months, respectively
• No prophylactic ART and mixed feeding were predictors for having an HIV positive antibody test at 18 months
20Klaus et al., 2015Article• The barriers to PMTCT completion: hopelessness and carelessness, lack of understanding of the efficacy of ARV, and negative religious influences.3
21Endalamaw et al., 2018Article• Rural residence, home delivery, no ART prophylaxis and mixed feeding increased the risk of HIV transmission3
22Menna et al., 2014Article• High knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude towards ‘ABC’ rules, being tested for HIV and chewing khat are factors associated with multiple sexual partnerships among secondary school students.3
23EPHA et al., 2013Report• The estimated HIV prevalence among FSWs in towns was 23.0%,; 4.5% in truck drivers
• ~15.5% of drivers have misconceptions about HIV prevention methods
• 21 % of drivers accept that once they had unprotected sex with someone, there is no reason to use condoms
• Divorced/Separated/Widowed have also high HIV prevalence
1, 3, 4
24UNODC, 2014Survey• HIV prevalence 4.2% in prison settings1, 4
25PEPFAR, 2018Strategic Plan• There are about 200,000 FSWs in Ethiopia1, 4
26PSI/E, 2016Research brief• The majority of FSWs (57.5 %) are 24 years and younger, and about 14% are 19 years or younger
• > 6% of HIV positive FSWs who started ART reported discontinuation of treatment for more than seven days in the three months prior to the assessment
1, 4, 5
27Demissie et al., 2018Article• The prevalence of HIV among IDUs was 6%
• 40% of IDUs reported ever sharing needles; 56% reported sharing other injecting equipment; among HIV-positive IDUs, 60% reported sharing a needle the last time they injected.
• Most of the IDUs were males (96%) with a mean age of 26 years.
1, 3, 4
28FHAPCO, 2018National roadmap• Key and priority populations4
29FMoH, 2018Report• Behavioural, biomedical and structural interventions5
30Biadgilign et al., 2011Article• Parents refusing to give consent for their children to access HIV testing services (HTS) and ART services5
31Gesesew et al., 2016Article• Males being away from home, drug addiction, fear of stigma & discrimination, distance from ART clinics, dependent on food supplies, mental problems, HIV negative partners; and baseline CD4 <200 cells/mm3 and WHO clinical stages 3 & 4 were factors of ART discontinuation.5
32Gesesew et al., 2017aArticle• Being rural dweller, illiteracy, marriage, alcohol use, smoking, having mental illness and being bed ridden functional status, having HIV positive partner and being co-infected with TB/HIV were factors for ART discontinuation.5
33Gesesew et al., 2017bArticle• ART discontinued adults were more likely to be females, tuberculosis/HIV co-infected, with immunological failure and no history of HIV testing.5
34Bezabhe et al., 2014Article• Economic constraints, perceived stigma & discrimination, medication side effects, and dissatisfaction with healthcare services, disclosure of HIV status, social support, responsibility for raising children, improved health on ART, and receiving education and counseling were factors for patients being non-adherent and lost to follow-up5
35Tiruneh and Wilson, 2016Article• With the introduction of appointment spacing, some patients complain of lack of storage space for the six-month supply of ARTs, poor storage conditions for their medicines, and preference of frequent follow up. Health workers are also concerned about adherence given the less frequent contact of PLHIV with the health services5
36PEPFAR, 2016Operation plan• Key and priority populations4
37FHAPCO, 2014Strategic plan• HIV transmission interventions include behavioural, biomedical and structural components.
• The plan intends to achieve the three 90 targets by 2020 through targeted social mobilization and HIV testing, linkage to care, quality of HIV treatment, and virtual elimination of MTCT, envisioning ending AIDS by 2030
38Gudina et al., 2017Article• Combination ART acheives sustained HIV viral suppression and contributes to improvement in the quality of life; and reductions in mortality, progression to AIDS, opportunistic infections (OIs), hospitalization, and decreased HIV transmission to uninfected persons5
39Misgena, 2011Article• Challenges related to HAART include lifelong therapy, failed treatment response, optimal time to start treatment and switching regimens, drug interaction, toxicity, cardiovascular risks, drug resistance, lost to follow-up, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), early mortality, challenges in viral load testing.5
40Bernabas et al., 2017Article• Noncompliance to medical instruction and poor adherence fosters emergence of drug resistance. Limited availability of laboratory services such as HIV RNA load and drug resistance testing and monitoring due to lack of experience of health professionals, and weak infrastructure and health care system contribute to delay in diagnosis of treatment failure5
41Telele et al., 2018Article• The high rate of transmitted and preexisting drug resistance mutations in Ethiopian patients are identified5
  1. Note: Objective representation of the agreed thematic areas, 1 = Determine the prevalence and incidence of HIV and mortality rate in the City; 2 = Identify the hot spot areas in the City; 3 = Establish factors involved in driving the epidemic in the city, through analysis of behavioural, biological, socio-economic and demographic data; 4 = Identify most-at-risk and priority population groups in the City Administration (sex workers, in-school youth, prisoners/inmates, discordant couples and IDUs); 5 = Quickly assess service availability, access and utilization for the identified most at risk/priority populations groups in the City Administration