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Table 2 Maternal determinants of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, Malawi 2015–2016

From: Maternal determinants of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding and their association with child undernutrition in Malawi (2015–2016)

Maternal CharacteristicEarly Initiation of BreastfeedingExclusive Breastfeeding Under 6 MonthsContinued Breastfeeding at 1 YearMinimum Dietary DiversityMinimum Meal FrequencyMinimum Acceptable DietIron-Rich Foods
Sociodemographic
 Ethnicity       
 Chewa   1 1 
 Tumbuka   0.97 (0.31–3.08) 1.39 (0.79–2.46) 
 Lomwe   1.20 (0.27–5.30) 0.66 (0.38–1.15) 
 Yao   0.98 (0.29–3.32) 0.65 (0.36–1.16) 
 Ngoni   0.86 (0.25–2.97) 0.58 (0.33–0.99)* 
 Other   2.40 (0.49–12.03) 0.61 (0.32–1.15) 
 Number of children     1.12 (1.02–1.23)* 
 Region       
 Northern1   1  
 Central0.64 (0.43–0.95)*   0.95 (0.55–1.65)  
 Southern1.12 (0.76–1.67)   1.74 (1.04–2.92)*  
 Area of residence       
 Rural1  1  1
 Urban0.46 (0.29–0.72)***  13.50 (4.25–42.89)****  1.08 (0.52–2.26)
Health status
 Maternal height       
 Height ≤ 150 cm1      
 Height > 150 cm1.51 (1.06–2.15)*      
 Maternal BMI       
 BMI < 18.5 kg/m2    1  
BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2    2.76 (1.02–7.46)*  
Health behaviors
Place of delivery
 Home   1   
 Government   0.72 (0.18–2.93)   
 Private   1.28 (0.20–8.10)   
Delivery
 Vaginal delivery1      
 Caesarean delivery0.32 (0.20–0.51)****      
Infant postnatal checks
 No   1 1 
 Yes   1.55 (0.61–3.89) 0.59 (0.41–0.85)* 
Empowerment
Landownership
 Does not own1  1   
 Owns1.02 (0.74–1.41)  1.64 (0.49–5.44)   
Wealth index
 Poorest1  1  1
 Poorer0.95 (0.64–1.43)  0.77 (0.17–3.43)  1.27 (0.59–2.69)
 Middle0.94 (0.63–1.41)  0.66 (0.18–2.42)  1.49 (0.75–2.96)
 Richer1.16 (0.72–1.86)  0.49 (0.12–2.25)  1.82 (0.85–3.89)
 Richest0.97 (0.59–1.60)  2.12 (0.40–11.23)  5.11 (2.12–12.33)***
Decision on income
 Respondent alone    1  
 Respondent and husband/partner    0.68 (0.40–1.13)  
 Husband/partner alone    0.59 (0.35–1.01)  
Decision on health
 Respondent alone     1 
 Respondent and husband/partner     1.25 (0.79–1.97) 
 Husband/partner alone     1.48 (0.93–2.37) 
Media Exposure
TV       
 Not at all   1  1
 Rarely (Less than once a week)   0.62 (0.17–2.25)  0.72 (0.33–1.59)
 At least once a week   0.35 (0.09–1.29)  1.28 (0.54–3.07)
Radio
 Not at all    11 
 Rarely (Less than once a week)    2.59 (1.65–4.07)****0.52 (0.36–0.80)* 
 At least once a week    2.56 (1.57–4.23)***0.48 (0.29–0.77)* 
  1. Final adjusted model: results expressed as adjusted odds ratio AOR (95% Confidence Interval); *p-value < 0.05, **p-value< 0.01, ***p-value< 0.001, ****p-value< 0.0001