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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample among Chinese college students [n (%)/M ± SD]

From: Impact of problematic mobile phone use and insufficient physical activity on depression symptoms: a college-based follow-up study

VariablesOverallDepression symptoms (wave 1)Increased depressive symptoms
YesNot/χ2YesNot/χ2
Age19.25 ± 1.4219.41 ± 1.5619.22 ± 1.392.37*19.28 ± 1.5519.25 ± 1.410.29
BMI20.24 ± 2.4020.11 ± 2.3120.27 ± 2.421.1620.09 ± 2.4520.25 ± 2.390.96
Sex   5.02*  5.01*
 Male917 (43%)140 (15.3%)777 (84.7) 75 (8.2%)842 (91.8) 
 Female1217 (57%)231 (19.0%)986 (81.0) 135 (11.1%)1082 (88.9) 
Residential area   2.05  3.23
 Rural1217 (57%)224 (18.4%)993 (81.6) 132 (10.8%)1085 (89.2) 
 Urban917 (43%)147 (16.0%)770 (84.0) 78 (8.5%)839 (91.5) 
Perceived family income   2.11  0.49
 Low680 (31.9%)130 (19.1%)550 (80.9) 71 (10.4%)609 (89.6) 
 Medium1348 (63.2%)224 (16.6%)1124 (83.4) 128 (9.5%)1220 (90.5) 
 High106 (5.0%)17 (16.0%)89 (84.0) 11 (10.4%)95 (89.6) 
Cigarette use   0.88  1.58
 NO1639 (76.8%)278 (17.0%)1361 (83.0) 154 (9.4%)1485 (90.6) 
 Yes495 (23.2%)93 (18.8%)402 (81.2) 56 (11.3%)439 (88.7) 
Alcohol use   4.74*  6.71*
 No938 (44%)182 (19.4%)756 (80.6) 110 (11.7%)828 (88.3) 
 Yes1196 (56%)189 (15.8%)1007 (84.2) 100 (8.4%)1096 (91.6) 
PMPU
 No1525 (71.5%)144 (9.4%)1381 (90.6)234.71***117 (7.7%)1408 (92.3)28.32***
 Yes609 (28.5%)227 (37.3%)382 (62.7) 93 (15.3%)516 (84.7) 
PA
 Sufficient754 (35.3%)109 (14.5%)645 (85.5)6.96**66 (8.8%)688 (91.2)1.55
 Insufficient1380 (64.7%)262 (19.0)1118 (81.0) 144 (10.4%)1236 (89.6) 
Joint effects of PMPU and IPA
 0567 (26.6%)43 (7.6%)524 (92.4)170.88***39 (6.9%)528 (93.1)22.18***
 11145 (53.7%)167 (14.6%)978 (85.4) 105 (9.2%)1040 (90.8) 
 2422 (19.8%)161 (38.2%)261 (61.8) 66 (15.6%)356 (84.4) 
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001