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Table 4 Maternal and infant variables of interest from cross-sectional survey and regression analysis

From: Feeding practices and risk factors for chronic infant undernutrition among refugees and migrants along the Thailand-Myanmar border: a mixed-methods study

Variables of interest      Univariable (p-value) Adjusted OR, (95% CI); p-value
Stunting
(n = 70)
Normal
(n = 320)
Underweight
(n = 58)
Normal
(n = 332)
Stunting Underweight Stunting Underweight
Maternala
 Age (yrs), mean (SD) 27.3 (6.8) 27.0 (6.3) 28.6 (7.3) 26.7 (6.2) 0.707 0.036 1.01, (0.97, 1.06);
0.602
1.06, (1.01, 1.10);
0.019
 Status, n (%)
  Refugee (Referent) 21 (12.7) 144 (87.3) 16 (9.7) 149 (90.3) 0.021 0.014 2.08, (1.12, 3.84);
0.020
2.26, (1.17, 4.36);
0.015
  Migrant 49 (21.8) 176 (78.2) 42 (18.7) 183 (81.3)
 Height (cm), mean (SD)b 148.0 (5.2) 151.6 (5.2) 149.1 (5.7) 151.3 (5.2) < 0.001 0.003 0.50, (0.38, 0.66);
< 0.001
0.64, (0.48, 0.85);
0.002
  Malaria in pregnancy, n (%)
  Yes 12 (34.3) 23 (65.7) 10 (28.6) 25 (71.4) 0.008 0.017 1.88, (0.79, 4.45);
0.151
1.91, (0.80, 4.57);
0.145
  No (Referent) 58 (16.3) 297 (83.7) 48 (13.5) 307 (86.5)
 Literacy, n (%)
  Can read/write 41 (15.6) 222 (84.4) 33 (12.6) 230 (87.5) 0.081 0.063 0.98, (0.52, 1.85);
0.961
0.87, (0.47, 1.62);
0.668
  Cannot read/write (Referent) 29 (22.8) 98 (77.2) 25 (19.7) 102 (80.3)
 Smoker, n (%)
  Yes 11 (31.4) 24 (68.6) 7 (20.0) 28 (80.0) 0.029 0.371 1.80, (0.70, 4.62);
0.224
Not included
  No (Referent) 59 (16.6) 296 (83.4) 51 (14.4) 304 (85.6)
Infantc
 Length of gestation, n (%)
  Term (Referent) 60 (16.6) 302 (83.4) 53 (14.6) 309 (85.4) 0.011 0.587 3.05, (1.29, 7.22);
0.011
1.35, (0.47, 3.91)
0.580
   < 37 wks 10 (35.7) 18 (64.3) 5 (17.9) 23 (82.1)
 Sex, n (%)
  Male 41 (22.9) 138 (77.1) 34 (19.0) 145 (81.0) 0.019 0.035 1.87, (1.08, 3.23);
0.025
1.94, (1.07, 3.52);
0.029
  Female (Referent) 29 (13.7) 182 (86.3) 24 (11.4) 187 (88.6)
 Small-for-gestational age, n (%)
  Yes 26 (32.1) 55 (67.9) 25 (30.9) 56 (69.1) < 0.001 < 0.001 3.42, (1.88, 6.22);
< 0.001
4.44, (2.36, 8.34);
< 0.001
  No (Referent) 44 (14.7) 256 (85.3) 33 (11.0) 267 (89.0)
 Age (months), mean (SD) 7.8 (3.5) 7.2 (3.4) 8.2 (3.6) 7.1 (3.4) 0.194 0.025 1.06, (0.98, 1.15);
0.121
1.12, (1.03, 1.22);
0.008
  1. For all variables included in univariable analysis, please refer to Additional file 2: Table S1
  2. A total of 4 multivariable regression models were created: 1 model tested “maternal risk factors” and infant feeding and WASH behavioral factors and 1 model tested “infant risk factors”, with both models tested for association with stunting and underweight
  3. aTotal number of observations included in multivariable regression for “maternal risk factors” for stunting (n = 389) and underweight (n = 381). Adjusted for maternal age
  4. bUnit of 5 cm used for multivariable regression
  5. cTotal number of observations included in multivariable regression for “infant risk factors” for stunting and underweight (n = 381). Adjusted for length of gestation, infant sex and infant age
  6. dA total of 9 data points missing (n = 381)