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Table 3 Bias in indirect estimates in 4480 simulated populations

From: Measuring and correcting bias in indirect estimates of under-5 mortality in populations affected by HIV/AIDS: a simulation study

Outcome variablestatistic15–1920–2425–2930–3435–3940–4445–49
Absolute biasmean−0.001− 0.001− 0.005−0.011− 0.017−0.017− 0.013
std dev0.0010.0010.0050.0120.0170.0150.011
median−0.000−0.001−0.002− 0.004−0.013− 0.016−0.011
Min−0.009−0.006− 0.023−0.049− 0.069−0.058− 0.042
max0.0020.00100000
Relative biasmean−0.6%−1.5%−4.4%−7.7%−9.7%−8.8%−5.6%
std dev1.0%1.9%5.6%9.4%10.2%8.5%5.5%
median−0.1%−0.8%−2.5%−4.4%−6.3%−6.2%− 4.4%
Min−5.0%−9.5%−23.7%−36.8%−40.5%−31.6%−22.6%
max0.9%0.6%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%
Yrs before survey that estimates pertain tomean1.22.64.16.08.010.413.7
Surviving womenmean71,42761,18449,65837,53227,96822,04718,238
Women who died from HIV/AIDSmean72,53962,69753,82745,09937,24330,99425,212
Children ever born, surv womenmean0.271.162.373.634.625.145.40
Children ever born, surv women + HIV deathsmean0.261.152.303.414.204.645.03
Dead children, surviving womenmean0.090.100.120.140.150.180.22
Dead children, surv women + HIV deathsmean0.090.100.120.150.170.190.23
Ratio of HIV deaths to surviving womenmean0.020.030.090.270.510.590.51