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Table 3 Multiple linear regressiona exploring associations between dietary patterns and sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics

From: Dietary patterns of adults and their associations with Sami ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors in a rural multiethnic population of northern Norway - the SAMINOR 2 clinical survey

CharacteristicsDietary patterns
Processed meat/ westernizedFish/traditionalFruit/vegetablesReindeer/traditionalBread and sandwich spreadsSweets and bakery goods
 β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Age (years)
 40–49ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 50–59−0.88*** (−0.99, −0.77)0.56*** (0.44, 0.67)0.26*** (0.14, 0.38)−0.06 (− 0.16, 0.04)0.03 (− 0.06, 0.12)0.18*** (0.08, 0.29)
 60–69−1.34*** (−1.46, −1.22)0.92*** (0.80, 1.05)0.30*** (0.18, 0.43)− 0.17** (− 0.28, − 0.07)0.01 (− 0.09, 0.11)0.45*** (0.34, 0.56)
 P for linear trend< 0.001< 0.001< 0.0010.002NS< 0.001
Gender
 MenReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Women0.07 (−0.01, 0.16)−0.47*** (− 0.56, − 0.38)1.36*** (1.27, 1.45)−0.09* (− 0.17, − 0.01)−0.53*** (− 0.60, − 0.46)0.14*** (0.06, 0.23)
Ethnic/geographic group
 Inland and coastal non-SamiReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Inland Sami−0.44*** (− 0.56, − 0.32)−0.53*** (− 0.65, − 0.41)−0.15* (− 0.28, − 0.03)2.08*** (1.98, 2.19)0.14** (0.05, 0.24)0.07 (− 0.04, 0.18)
 Inland multiethnic Sami−0.30* (− 0.55, − 0.05)−0.32* (− 0.58, − 0.06)0.06 (− 0.21, 0.33)1.42*** (1.19, 1.64)0.15 (− 0.06, 0.36)−0.13 (− 0.36, 0.10)
 Coastal Sami− 0.19* (− 0.33, − 0.04)−0.03 (− 0.18, 0.12)0.39*** (0.23, 0.54)0.71*** (0.57, 0.84)0.11 (− 0.01, 0.23)−0.27*** (− 0.41, − 0.14)
 Coastal multiethnic Sami−0.02 (− 0.15, 0.11)0.17* (0.04, 0.31)0.05 (− 0.09, 0.18)0.30*** (0.18, 0.42)0.09 (− 0.02, 0.20)−0.25*** (− 0.37, − 0.13)
Education level (years)
 0–9ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 10–120.33*** (0.21, 0.45)0.02 (−0.10, 0.15)0.14* (0.01, 0.27)−0.29*** (− 0.40, − 0.18)−0.10* (− 0.20, − 0.004)−0.31*** (− 0.42, − 0.20)
 13–160.35*** (0.23, 0.48)0.09 (− 0.04, 0.22)0.38*** (0.25, 0.52)−0.25*** (− 0.36, − 0.13)−0.29*** (− 0.39, − 0.18)−0.41*** (− 0.53, − 0.30)
  ≥ 170.32*** (0.18, 0.47)0.25*** (0.10, 0.40)0.62*** (0.46, 0.77)−0.19** (− 0.32, − 0.06)−0.45*** (− 0.57, − 0.33)−0.47*** (− 0.61, − 0.34)
 P for linear trend< 0.0010.001< 0.0010.01< 0.001< 0.001
Gross annual household income (NOK)
 Low (≤450,000)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Average (451000–750,000)0.16** (0.05, 0.27)0.047 (−0.07, 0.16)0.10 (−0.02, 0.22)− 0.17** (− 0.27, − 0.07)0.01 (− 0.08, 0.10)−0.19*** (− 0.30, − 0.09)
 High (> 750,000)0.36*** (0.24, 0.49)0.10 (− 0.03, 0.23)0.19** (0.06, 0.32)−0.35*** (− 0.46, − 0.24)−0.14** (− 0.24, − 0.04)−0.31*** (− 0.43, − 0.19)
 P for linear trend< 0.001NS0.005< 0.0010.009< 0.001
Household size
 1ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 20.10 (−0.03, 0.23)0.13* (0.0001, 0.26)−0.07 (− 0.21, 0.06)0.0008 (− 0.11, 0.12)−0.04 (− 0.14, 0.07)0.19** (0.07, 0.30)
 3–40.24** (0.10, 0.38)−0.17* (− 0.32, − 0.03)−0.15 (− 0.30, 0.004)0.16* (0.04, 0.29)0.04 (− 0.08, 0.16)0.32*** (0.18, 0.45)
 5–80.17 (− 0.02, 0.36)−0.38*** (− 0.57, − 0.18)−0.17 (− 0.38, 0.03)0.35*** (0.18, 0.52)0.04 (− 0.12, 0.20)0.54*** (0.36, 0.71)
 P for linear trend0.03< 0.001NS< 0.001NS< 0.001
Physical activity level
 LowReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Medium−0.12* (−0.23, − 0.01)0.07 (− 0.04, 0.18)0.29*** (0.18, 0.40)− 0.12* (− 0.21, − 0.02)−0.06 (− 0.15, 0.03)0.02 (− 0.08, 0.12)
 High−0.37*** (− 0.51, − 0.23)0.10 (− 0.04, 0.25)0.70*** (0.55, 0.85)−0.07 (− 0.20, 0.05)−0.16** (− 0.28, − 0.04)−0.09 (− 0.22, 0.04)
 P for linear trend< 0.001NS< 0.001NS0.007NS
Smoking status
 NeverReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Former0.12** (0.03, 0.21)0.24*** (0.15, 0.34)0.01 (−0.09, 0.11)−0.05 (− 0.13, 0.04)−0.04 (− 0.12, 0.03)−0.29*** (− 0.38, − 0.21)
 Current0.22*** (0.11, 0.34)0.34*** (0.22, 0.46)− 0.55*** (− 0.68, − 0.43)0.23*** (0.13, 0.34)0.23*** (0.13, 0.33)−0.38*** (− 0.49, − 0.27)
BMI category
 Underweight/normal weightReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Overweight0.19*** (0.09, 0.29)0.15** (0.05, 0.26)0.06 (−0.05, 0.17)−0.01 (− 0.10, 0.08)−0.05 (− 0.14, 0.03)−0.16** (− 0.25, − 0.06)
 Obesity0.20*** (0.09, 0.31)0.16** (0.04, 0.28)0.23*** (0.11, 0.35)0.11* (0.004, 0.21)0.04 (−0.05, 0.14)−0.36*** (− 0.46, − 0.25)
 P for linear trend0.0010.007< 0.0010.04NS< 0.001
 R-sq0.470.380.300.380.450.26
  1. CI confidence interval. a Predictors were mutually adjusted each for other and for energy intake
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  3. NS-non significant, p ≥ 0.05