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Table 6 Association between maternal characteristics and malaria infection during last pregnancy among women who experienced a pregnancy outcome in the past year in three districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, 2016a

From: Utilization of key preventive measures for pregnancy complications and malaria among women in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

  Malaria infection during last pregnancy
N (%)
No malaria infection during last pregnancy
N (%)
P value for the overall difference among the categories Factors associated with malaria infection during last pregnancy, univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Factors associated with malaria infection during last pregnancy, multivariable analysis
AOR (95% CI)g
Maternal age (years)
 15–18 11 (20.0) 274 (7.3) 0.0088 Reference Reference
 19–24 14 (25.4) 951 (25.5) 0.36 (0.16–0.80) 0.48 (0.19–1.18)
 25–34 23 (41.8) 1887 (50.6) 0.29 (0.14–0.62) 0.25 (0.11–0.58)
 35–49 7 (12.7) 617 (16.5) 0.28 (0.11–0.73) 0.21 (0.07–0.65)
Employment status
 Not Employedb 31 (56.4) 2927 (78.5) 0.0007 Reference Reference
 Self-employedc 21 (38.2) 705 (18.9) 2.97 (1.68–5.22) 2.81 (1.55–5.11)
 Employed 3 (5.4) 97 (2.6) 2.99 (0.87–10.17) 3.50 (0.99–12.38)
Education level
 No education 39 (70.9) 2062 (55.3) 0.0790 Reference Reference
 Primaryd 11 (20.0) 1162 (31.2) 0.48 (0.24–0.95) 0.42 (0.20–0.88)
 Secondarye or higherf 5 (9.1) 505 (13.5) 0.48 (0.19–1.25) 0.42 (0.15–1.21)
ITN utilization during pregnancy
 No 42 (76.3) 2745 (73.6) 0.6999 Reference Reference
 Yes 13 (23.6) 984 (26.4) 0.83 (0.43–1.58) 0.87 (0.44–1.72)
Indoor Residual Spraying
 No 39 (70.9) 2784 (74.6) 0.5260 Reference Reference
 Yes 16 (29.1) 945 (25.3) 1.17 (0.62–2.23) 1.45 (0.73–2.90)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio
  2. Notes: a Numbers are rounded and may not add up to exactly 100%; b the unemployed category contains women who were unemployed, housewives or students; c the self-employed category includes women who are farmers and/or traders; d considers women who completed all or some primary school years; econsiders women who completed all or some secondary school years; fsecondary and higher education were combined given model conversion issues; g AOR and corresponding 95% CI were obtained from a multivariate model, including variables with a significant univariate test at p-value cut-off point of 0.05
  3. Bold text indicates significant results at the level of p-value <0.05