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Table 2 Handwashing with soap and rubbing and frequency of having influenza-like illness among adults in Saudi Arabia

From: Do various personal hygiene habits protect us against influenza-like illness?

Habit Frequency of influenza-like illness in the past 4 weeks
n 2082 (%)
OR 95% Conf. Interval
1–3b > 3b
Duration of hand washing
  < 5 s 144 (28.1) 356 (22.7) REF  
 5–10 s 246 (47.3) 822 (52.4) 1.37 1.08–1.75a
 10–20 s 85 (16.6) 265 (16.9) 1.26 0.92–1.72
 20–30 s 24 (4.7) 77 (4.9) 1.3 0.79–2.13
  > 30 s 17 (3.3) 50 (3.2) 1.19 0.66–2.13
Hand washing before eating
 Never 270 (52.7) 965 (61.5) REF  
 Rarely 195 (38.1) 530 (33.8) 0.28 0.23–0.34a
 Sometimes 37 (7.2) 65 (4.1) 0.49 0.32–0.75a
 Always 10 (2.0) 10 (0.6) 0.28 0.12–0.68a
Hand washing after using the bathroom
 Never 386 (75.4) 1354 (86.2) REF  
 Rarely 101 (19.7) 184 (11.7) 0.52 0.4–0.68a
 Sometimes 16 (3.1) 22 (1.4) 0.39 0.2–0.75a
 Always 9 (1.8) 10 (0.6) 0.31 0.13–0.78a
Hand washing after coming back home
 Never 131 (25.6) 481 (30.6) REF  
 Rarely 165 (32.2) 489 (31.1) 0.81 0.62–1.05
 Sometimes 86 (16.8) 266 (16.9) 0.84 0.62–1.15
 Always 130 (25.4) 334 (21.3) 0.70 0.53–0.93a
Hand washing after handshaking
 Never 11 (2.1) 51 (3.2) REF  
 Rarely 100 (19.5) 383 (24.4) 0.8 0.4–1.6
 Sometimes 160 (31.3) 388 (24.7) 0.5 0.26–1.03
 Always 241 (47.1) 748 (47.6) 0.32 0.16–0.61a
Hand washing before handshaking
 Never 146 (28.5) 554 (35.3) REF  
 Rarely 135 (26.4) 399 (25.4) 0.77 0.6–1.01
 Sometimes 101 (19.7) 238 (15.2) 0.62 0.46–0.83a
 Always 130 (25.4) 379 (24.1) 0.76 0.59–1.00
  1. OR Odds Ratio
  2. The data are presented as numbers (%) and 95%Confidence Interval for comparison and Statistical significance
  3. aStatistically significant difference
  4. bNumber of times people were affected with influenza-like illness