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Table 3 Percentage of agreement with each smoking belief, according to gender and country of data collection, analysis of variance (ANOVA, p value). Silne R, 2016/17, N = 12,979

From: Smoking beliefs across genders, a comparative analysis of seven European countries

  BOYS GIRLS   ALL ANOVA gender (F) Chisq for country
Bel1 Ire Fin Ger Ita NL Po ALL Bel Ire Fin Ger Ita NL Po ALL    
Positive individual beliefs
 Feeling relaxed 49 49 28 37 47 50 43 44 49 44 25 36 56 50 39 43 44 0.1 60.6*
 Losing weight 22 30 10 15 13 12 22 18 20 33 10 22 16 15 27 21 20 10.7* 67.6*
Positive social beliefs
 Looking cool 13 18 7 7 19 14 13 13 11 15 7 8 18 14 10 12 13 1.3 31.1*
 Looking grown-up 10 33 11 18 20 19 12 18 11 31 9 19 25 18 11 18 18 0.5 89.7*
 Looking masculine 8 17 8 12 13 14 9 12 6 15 6 10 7 9 5 8 10 33.5* 25.5*
 Looking feminine 2 7 5 4 6 4 3 5 5 3 2 3 8 3 3 4 4 2.9 9.8*
 Getting a boy/girlfriend 4 10 6 4 11 6 5 7 3 6 4 4 5 5 4 4 6 29.8* 10.2*
 Becoming popular 7 21 11 7 12 15 13 12 9 13 11 10 12 13 14 12 12 1.4 17.4*
 Appearing sexy 4 9 3 3 13 5 7 7 4 10 4 3 14 7 6 7 7 2.3 39.7*
Negative individual beliefs
 Getting facial wrinkles 47 84 82 79 63 70 66 70 56 92 90 81 71 77 77 78 74 93.1* 165.5*
 Having less ability to exercise 90 90 88 87 74 82 85 85 90 93 94 83 76 81 86 86 86 1.7 53.7*
 Getting lung cancer 94 97 95 94 92 92 95 94 95 98 98 96 93 93 97 96 95 18.3* 14.8*
 Having trouble breathing 92 93 91 95 88 91 91 91 93 97 96 95 92 92 95 94 93 37.8* 7.7*
Negative social beliefs
 Getting into trouble 69 85 89 90 75 66 62 76 69 91 93 89 79 71 68 80 78 27.8* 136.9*
 Most people reluctant to date 49 65 75 64 49 67 31 57 52 66 77 61 41 64 28 55 56 4.6* 191.7*
 Parents’ disapproval 95 98 98 82 95 96 95 95 96 99 98 81 95 97 98 95 95 4.6* 116.6*
 Most people would not hire a smoker to babysit 71 82 88 87 78 81 64 79 72 87 88 88 73 82 63 78 78 0 91.4*
 Best friends’ disapproval 57 63 50 52 37 46 59 53 69 79 67 58 49 68 73 67 60 265.1* 64.6*
 Teachers’ disapproval 38 90 86 68 62 56 60 66 41 96 76 63 61 61 64 67 66 0.8 288.1*
  1. We controlled for multiple testing using the DUNCAN (alpha = 0.05) option of the ANOVA procedure
  2. 1Bel Belgium, Ire Ireland, Fin Finland, Ger Germany, Ita Italy, NL The Netherlands, PO Portugal, All All countries
  3. * = p < 0.05