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Table 1 Participant socio-demographic characteristics, general health and psychological measures by country of birth and whether received help for emotional problems

From: Predictors of professional help-seeking for emotional problems in Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Australia: findings from the Building a New Life in Australia Database

 Iraq (n = 803) % (n; SE)Afghanistan (n = 485) % (n; SE)p valueTotal (n = 1288) a % (n; SE)Did not receive help (n = 790) % (n; SE)Received help (n = 478) % (n; SE)p value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Mean age37.8 (803; 0.55)33.2 (485; 0.58)< 0.00136.1 (1288; 0.41)34.1 (790; 0.51)39.6 (478; 0.67)< 0.001
 Gender
  Female48.6 (390)44.4 (218)0.15447.0 (608)45.5 (357)49.3 (240)0.191
  Male51.4 (413)55.6 (267) 53.0 (680)54.5 (433)50.7 (238) 
 Education       
  Never attended school5.4 (44)36.2 (182)< 0.00116.8 (226)14.8 (122)19.6 (97)0.004
  9 or less years school42.3 (335)47.9 (226) 44.3 (561)42.5 (331)47.9 (223) 
  10 or more years schooling31.7 (251)13.1 (59) 24.8 (310)27.3 (207)20.5 (98) 
  Post-school education20.6 (168)2.8 (14) 14.1 (182)15.5 (125)12.0 (56) 
 Location  < 0.001   0.328
  Major city99.8 (800)86.6 (403) 94.9 (1203)95.3 (741)94.2 (443) 
  Regional Australia0.2 (3)13.5 (82) 5.1 (85)4.7 (49)5.8 (35) 
 Time in Australia  0.004   0.044
  Less than 6 months83.8 (676)77.2 (376) 81.4 (1052)80.0 (629)84.7 (410) 
  6 months or more16.2 (127)22.8 (109) 18.6 (236)20.0 (161)15.3 (68) 
 Importance of religion^  0.018   0.027
  Very important74.2 (595)72.3 (350) 73.5 (945)71.1 (557)78.0 (375) 
  Important22.2 (173)20.4 (97) 21.5 (270)23.9 (187)17.3 (79) 
  Not very important/ no religion3.7 (31)7.3 (32) 5.0 (63)5.0 (40)4.8 (21) 
 Frequency difficulty travelling to required locations  0.267   0.003
  Always/ most of the time43.8 (339)45.3 (219) 44.4 (558)42.3 (325)46.9 (219) 
  Some of the time30.7 (243)33.2 (162) 31.6 (405)30.3 (239)34.6 (163) 
  Never25.5 (189)21.5 (101) 24.0 (290)27.4 (207)18.5 (80) 
General health and psychological measures
 Self-rated health  < 0.001   < 0.001
  Excellent/ very good22.2165)49.3 (230) 32.2 (395)38.2 (291)22.5 (101) 
  Good/fair56.7 (455)41.7 (207) 52.1 (662)51.6 (411)49.2 (236) 
  Poor/ very poor21.2 (183)9.0 (48) 16.7 (231)10.2 (88)28.3 (141) 
 Disability  < 0.001   < 0.001
  Has disability32.2 (271)20.5 (105) 27.9 (381)18.5 (157)43.8 (216) 
  No disability67.9 (520)79.5 (373) 72.2 (893)81.5 (626)56.2 (255) 
 Number of potentially traumatic events  < 0.001   0.004
  No response10.0 (74)24.2 (112) 15.3 (186)16.3 (124)12.3 (55) 
  1 event23.3 (180)35.9 (171) 28.0 (351)30.1 (232)24.4 (113) 
  2–3 events33.1 (271)23.2 (115) 29.5 (386)29.0 (232)30.5 (149) 
  4 or more events33.6 (278)16.6 (87) 27.3 (365)24.6 (202)32.9 (161) 
 Probable PTSD  < 0.001   < 0.001
  Unlikely PTSD54.5 (414)77.7 (358) 62.9 (772)70.6 (540)49.6 (221) 
  Likely PTSD45.6 (368)22.3 (104) 37.1 (472)29.4 (225)50.4 (239) 
 Psychological distress (K6)  < 0.001   < 0.001
  K6 mean score14.2 (776; 0.22)11.8 (475; 0.26) 13.3 (1251; 0.17)12.0 (767; 0.31)15.5 (464; 0.20) 
  1. BNLA Wave 1 and Wave 3. Weighed percentages, sample n. SE: standard error. Corrected weighted Pearson chi-squared (percentages) and adjusted Wald (means) tests for significant differences by country of birth and by whether received help: *** p > 0.001, ** p > 0.01, * p > 0.05. Variables measured at Wave 1, except for potentially traumatic events and help-seeking. ^ 48.3% (n = 602) of the sample were Christians (76.3% (n = 597) among Iraqis and 0.9% (5) among Afghans) and 44.8% (n = 588) of the sample were Muslims (12.6% (n = 109) of Iraqis and 99.1% (479) of Afghans). Among Iraqis 11.0% (n = 89) had other religions (including 1 case no religion)
  2. aExcludes: 20 participants who did not report whether they had received help; 34 participants who did not report PTSD; 37 participants who did not report K6; 9 participants who did not report education; 14 participants who did not report disability; 10 participants who did not report on the importance of religion; 35 participants who did not report on the frequency of travelling difficulties