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Table 2 Factors associated with neonatal mortality based on conceptual framework analysis (distal, intermediate, and proximal factors). Foz do Iguassu PR, 2012–2016

From: Determinants of neonatal mortality in the largest international border of Brazil: a case-control study

Variable OR CI 95% p-value Adjusted OR CI 95% p-value
Distal Level
 Maternal age
  Less than 19 years 1.49 0.99–2.32 0.053 1.04 0.45–2.41 0.921
  From 20 to 34 years 1.00 1.00
  Over 35 years 1.23 0.79–1.93 0.349 0.95 0.43–2.11 0.905
 Education (years of study)
  Less than 7 years 1.03 0.70–1.54 0.846 1.12 0.53–2.34 0.766
 From 8 to 11 years 1.12 0.49–2.53 0.779 0.85 0.17–4.11 0.8
 Over 12 years 1.00 1.00
 Marital status
  With partner 1.00 1.00
  Without partner 1.19 0.88–1.63 0.249 0.70 0.40–1.24 0.226
 Race
  White 1.00 1.00
  Black 1.16 0.48–3.10 0.519 0.91 0.16–5.20 0.912
  Brown 0.90 0.66–1.23 0.681 0.90 0.50–1.64 0.742
 Parity
  Primiparous 1.00 1.00
  Multiparous 1.20 0.76–1.88 0.424 1.44 0.76–2.70 0.261
Intermediate level
 Onset of prenatal care
  First trimester 1.00 1.00
  After first trimester 0.91 0.58–2.84 1.44 1.33 0.63–2.84 0.448
 Prenatal care appointments
  0 to 3 appointment 6.76* 3.89–11.73 < 0.001 3.34* 1.28–8.73 0.014
  4 to 6 appointments 2.63* 1.78–3.88 < 0.001 1.17 0.60–2.27 0.640
  7 or more appointments 1.00 1.00
 Induction of delivery
  No 3.84* 2.32–6.36 < 0.001 0.64 0.30–1.38 0.264
  Yes 1.00 1.00
 Type of delivery
  Vaginal 1.00 1.00
  Caesarean section 0.77 0.49–1.23 0.289 1.83 0.88–3.80 0.106
Proximal level  
 Gestational age
  Preterm 3.45* 1.86–6.39 < 0.001 3.64* 1.87–7.11 < 0.001
 Term 1.00 1.00
Post-term
 Sex
  Female 1.08 0.65–1.82 0.745 0.87 0.50–1.52 0.630
  Male 1.00 1.00
 Birth weight
  Low 18.34* 9.73–34.55 < 0.001 17.15* 8.55–34.37 < 0.001
  Adequate 1.00 1.00
  Overweight 0.93 0.21–4.06 0.928 0.98 0.22–4.44 0.994
 Fetal congenital anomaly
  Yes 22.66* 8.78–58.47 < 0.001 22.49* 7.44–67.95 < 0.001
  No 1.00 1.00
 First minute Apgar score
  High 1.00 1.00
  Low 14.51* 8.06–26.10 < 0.001 15.63* 8.23–29.67 < 0.001
  1. * Variables statistically associated with neonatal death