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Table 3 Summary table of hypothesised relationships and results of the analyses

From: Citizens’ initiatives for care and welfare in the Netherlands: an ecological analysis

Results All areas Urban Semi-urban and intermediate Semi-rural and rural
Mechanism and variable
Care vacuum
 Percentage of 75+ Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance GP Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance pharmacy Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance hospital Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance grocery store Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance elementary school Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Current distance high school + Ns Ns +
 Current distance library Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to GP increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to pharmacy increased Ns + Ns Ns
 Distance to hospital increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to grocery store increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to elementary school increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to high school increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Distance to library increased Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Percentage of migrants Ns + Ns Ns
Capacity for action
 Social capital Ns Ns Ns +
 Percentage 65–75 Ns + Ns Ns
 Residential turnover Ns Ns Ns Ns
 Percentage high education Ns + + Ns
 Percentage Catholic + Ns + +
Model of action
 Distance to other initiatives + Ns Ns Ns
Interactionsa
 Distance to nearest high school and percentage Catholic + Ns Ns Ns
  1. + = significant coefficient in hypothesized direction
  2. - = significant effect in opposite direction
  3. Ns = non-significant coefficient
  4. aOnly one of the tested interactions had a significant coefficient