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Table 2 Logistic multilevel analysis with dependent variable presence (1) or absence (0) of a citizen’s initiative; full model for total dataset and stratified by level of urbanization; B coefficient (standard error)

From: Citizens’ initiatives for care and welfare in the Netherlands: an ecological analysis

  Total dataset Urban a Semi-urban and intermediate Semi-rural and rural
Constant −2.24 (.591) −4.67 (.654) −3.16 (.387) −2.73 (.600)
Confounders
 level of urbanization: semi-urban and intermediate (ref = urban) −1.25 (.504)*
 level of urbanization: semi-rural and rural (ref = urban) −.56 (.583)
 Population / 10,000 .94 (.267)* 2.16 (.593)* 1.24 (.470)* .29 (.519)
 Socio-economic status .23 (.119)* .86 (.228)* −.12 (.205) .06 (.271)
Care vacuum
 Percentage of 75+ .02 (.036) −.00 (.092) .01 (.060) .05 (.075)
 Current distance GP .17 (.139) −3.48 (1.691)* −.01 (.355) .14 (.169)
 Current distance pharmacy .066 (.108) −3.47 (1.845) −.02 (.240) .04 (.137)
 Current distance hospital .04 (.028) .15 (.157) −.02 (.070) .07 (.037)
 Current distance grocery store −.27 (.173) 1.62 (1.588) .19 (.377) −.34 (.217)
 Current distance elementary school .07 (.299) −.76 (1.867) .40 (.695) .07 (.375)
 Current distance high school .17 (.047)* .09 (.459) .19 (.130) .17 (.060)*
 Current distance library .02 (.070) −.11 (.380) .27 (.155) −.01 (.094)
 Distance to GP increased (ref = no increase) .17 (.396) b .05 (.836) .83 (.522)
 Distance to pharmacy increased (ref = no increase) .38 (.346) 4.26 (1.706)* .58 (.622) .45 (.472)
 Distance to hospital increased (ref = no increase) −.19 (.213) .58 (.438) −.58 (.414) −.56 (.374)
 Distance to grocery store increased (ref = no increase) .84 (.480) b .22 (1.034) 1.09 (.630)
 Distance to elementary school increased (ref = no increase) −.60 (.634) b b −.19 (.759)
 Distance to high school increased (ref = no increase) −.50 (.260) −.013 (.602) −.58 (.594) −.57 (.378)
 Distance to library increased (ref = no increase) −.16 (.257) .65 (.550) −.38 (.482) −.56 (.456)
 Percentage of migrants .01 (.012) .06 (.021) * −.02 (.027) .01 (.028)
Capacity variables
 Social capital 1.59 (.995) −.64 (1.913) 1.89 (1.806) 4.69 (1.897)*
 Percentage 65–75 .012 (.052) .33 (.159) * .05 (.084) −.07 (.089)
 Residential turnover .003 (.006) −.02 (.010) .02 (.011) −.02 (.011)
 Percentage high education .02 (.020) .15 (.045) * .08 (.037)* −.02 (.034)
 Percentage Catholic .02 (.008)* −.03 (.053) .03 (.013)* .02 (.011)*
Model of action
 Distance to other initiatives −.19 (.097)* .66 (.348) −.10 (.154) −.18 (.144)
 N postal code areas 2387 345 1054 946
 N municipalities 377 15 143 219
 N provinces 12 12 12
 Pseudo R-squared (incl. Random effects 0.42 0.63 0.31 0.58
 Pseudo R-squared (fixed effects) 0.24 0.63 0.26 0.29
  1. aTwo-level model excluding province due to small number of provinces
  2. bNo increase of distance
  3. *p < 0.05