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Table 3 Gender-specific association of sociodemographic, life style characteristics, and metabolic risk factors with insufficient physical activity among Iranian population

From: Physical activity profile of the Iranian population: STEPS survey, 2016

Variable Categories Total Male Female
Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a Fully Adjusted OR (95% CI)b Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a Fully Adjusted OR (95% CI)b Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a Fully Adjusted OR (95% CI)b
Sociodemographic Characteristics
 Gender Female 1·0 1·0 1·0
Male 0·51 (0·48–0·54), P:< 0·001 0·62 (0·56–0·69), P:< 0·001 0·69 (0·58–0·82), P:< 0·001
 Age 18–24 years 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
25–34 years 1·15 (1·04–1·26), P:0·006 1·03 (0·92–1·16), P:0·579 1·0 1·31 (1·12–1·53), P:0·001 1·23 (1–1·51), P:0·048 1·0 1·06 (0·93–1·21), P:0·386 0·96 (0·83–1·12), P:0·635 1·0
35–44 years 1·2 (1·09–1·32), P:< 0·001 1·03 (0·91–1·17), P:0·636 0·99 (0·88–1·12), P:0·855 1·77 (1·51–2·07), P:< 0·001 1·58 (1·26–1·99), P:< 0·001 1·09 (0·9–1·33), P:0·37 0·92 (0·8–1·05), P:0·213 0·82 (0·7–0·96), P:0·013 0·92 (0·78–1·07), P:0·27
45–54 years 1·12 (1·01–1·24), P:0·028 0·9 (0·79–1·03), P:0·121 0·78 (0·68–0·89), P:< 0·001 1·78 (1·52–2·09), P:< 0·001 1·49 (1·18–1·89), P:0·001 0·91 (0·73–1·13), P:0·406 0·81 (0·7–0·92), P:0·002 0·67 (0·57–0·79), P:< 0·001 0·7 (0·59–0·84), P:< 0·001
55–64 years 1·13 (1·01–1·25), P:0·026 0·89 (0·77–1·02), P:0·098 0·76 (0·64–0·89), P:0·001 1·58 (1·34–1·86), P:< 0·001 1·2 (0·93–1·53), P:0·154 0·74 (0·57–0·95), P:0·018 0·92 (0·8–1·06), P:0·232 0·76 (0·64–0·91), P:0·002 0·78 (0·63–0·97), P:0·027
 Residence area Rural 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Urban 1·48 (1·39–1·57), P:< 0·001 1·61 (1·49–1·73), P:< 0·001 1·69 (1·52–1·88), P:< 0·001 1·51 (1·37–1·66), P:< 0·001 1·61 (1·42–1·81), P:< 0·001 1·76 (1·49–2·09), P:< 0·001 1·56 (1·44–1·69), P:< 0·001 1·63 (1·48–1·79), P:< 0·001 1·66 (1·45–1·9), P:< 0·001
 Marital status Never married 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Married 1·33 (1·24–1·43), P:< 0·001 1·28 (1·16–1·41), P:< 0·001 1·11 (0·94–1·3), P:0·219 1·42 (1·28–1·58), P:< 0·001 1·24 (1·06–1·46), P:0·007 1·25 (0·97–1·63), P:0·088 1·1 (0·99–1·22), P:0·07 1·1 (0·96–1·26), P:0·154 0·95 (0·77–1·19), P:0·673
Divorced or Living alone 1·6 (1·31–1·95), P:< 0·001 1·33 (1·07–1·66), P:0·011 1·37 (0·96–1·96), P:0·079 1·77 (1·15–2·7), P:0·009 1·58 (0·99–2·52), P:0·055 1·61 (0·76–3·42), P:0·212 1·09 (0·86–1·38), P:0·479 1·16 (0·9–1·5), P:0·254 1·25 (0·83–1·89), P:0·283
Widow 1·64 (1·4–1·93), P:< 0·001 1·25 (1·04–1·51), P:0·017 1·09 (0·83–1·45), P:0·529 1·95 (0·95–4·01), P:0·07 1·57 (0·71–3·46), P:0·262 1·14 (0·42–3·1), P:0·792 1·04 (0·87–1·24), P:0·654 1·13 (0·91–1·39), P:0·26 0·95 (0·69–1·3), P:0·743
 Occupation Nonpaid & self-paid 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Employee 1·42 (1·26–1·59), P:< 0·001 1·25 (1·1–1·43), P:0·001 1·1 (0·91–1·34), P:0·326 1·24 (1·08–1·42), P:0·002 1·21 (1·03–1·41), P:0·017 1·01 (0·8–1·28), P:0·94 1·61 (1·25–2·09), P:< 0·001 1·55 (1·17–2·05), P:0·002 1·46 (0·95–2·24), P:0·086
Worker 1·25 (1·09–1·45), P:0·002 1·08 (0·93–1·26), P:0·324 0·92 (0·72–1·17), P:0·503 1·19 (1–1·41), P:0·045 1·16 (0·96–1·38), P:0·118 1·04 (0·79–1·38), P:0·762 1·13 (0·85–1·5), P:0·401 1·03 (0·76–1·39), P:0·855 0·69 (0·42–1·16), P:0·161
Student 1·17 (1·02–1·33), P:0·022 1·08 (0·92–1·28), P:0·344 0·96 (0·63–1·47), P:0·853 0·72 (0·59–0·86), P:< 0·001 1·11 (0·87–1·43), P:0·396 0·79 (0·4–1·56), P:0·503 1·47 (1·15–1·87), P:0·002 1·27 (0·96–1·68), P:0·094 1·15 (0·6–2·19), P:0·675
Soldier 0·79 (0·48–1·3), P:0·357 0·95 (0·57–1·58), P:0·838 1·03 (0·29–3·66), P:0·969 0·82 (0·5–1·35), P:0·432 1·19 (0·71–2), P:0·514 1·28 (0·35–4·64), P:0·705
Unemployed & retired 1·41 (1·28–1·56), P:< 0·001 1·38 (1·24–1·54), P:< 0·001 1·3 (1·11–1·53), P:0·002 1·32 (1·19–1·48), P:< 0·001 1·4 (1·23–1·58), P:< 0·001 1·39 (1·15–1·67), P:0·001 1·45 (1·14–1·85), P:0·002 1·47 (1·14–1·9), P:0·003 1·16 (0·76–1·77), P:0·497
Housekeeper 2·11 (1·96–2·26), P:< 0·001 1·38 (1·23–1·54), P:< 0·001 1·35 (1·12–1·63), P:0·001 2·67 (1·73–4·11), P:< 0·001 2·57 (1·64–4·05), P:< 0·001 2·55 (1·4–4·65), P:0·002 1·59 (1·33–1·89), P:< 0·001 1·67 (1·39–2·01), P:< 0·001 1·4 (1·05–1·88), P:0·024
 Education Illiterate 1·0 1·0 1·0   1·0 1·0   1·0 1·0
1–6 years 0·93 (0·84–1·03), P:0·172 0·93 (0·83–1·04), P:0·198 0·91 (0·79–1·06), P:0·226 0·87 (0·71–1·06), P:0·165 0·77 (0·62–0·95), P:0·016 0·74 (0·56–0·99), P:0·044 1·09 (0·97–1·23), P:0·166 0·96 (0·84–1·09), P:0·514 0·96 (0·81–1·13), P:0·599
7–12 years 0·98 (0·89–1·08), P:0·654 1·02 (0·91–1·14), P:0·745 0·97 (0·83–1·14), P:0·717 0·96 (0·8–1·16), P:0·668 0·91 (0·74–1·13), P:0·405 0·86 (0·64–1·15), P:0·308 1·24 (1·1–1·38), P:< 0·001 0·96 (0·84–1·11), P:0·608 0·95 (0·78–1·16), P:0·631
> 12 years 0·88 (0·79–0·97), P:0·013 0·94 (0·82–1·08), P:0·37 1·02 (0·84–1·24), P:0·857 0·84 (0·69–1·02), P:0·08 0·76 (0·6–0·96), P:0·022 0·81 (0·57–1·14), P:0·228 1·16 (1·02–1·32), P:0·022 0·99 (0·84–1·17), P:0·924 1·1 (0·86–1·4), P:0·461
 Wealth index 1st quintile (poorest) 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
2nd quintile 1·19 (1·09–1·31), P:< 0·001 1·03 (0·94–1·14), P:0·511 1·1 (0·96–1·27), P:0·172 1·06 (0·92–1·23), P:0·394 0·92 (0·78–1·08), P:0·282 0·95 (0·75–1·21), P:0·668 1·32 (1·17–1·48), P:< 0·001 1·11 (0·98–1·26), P:0·088 1·22 (1·02–1·45), P:0·031
3rd quintile 1·18 (1·08–1·28), P:< 0·001 0·96 (0·87–1·06), P:0·465 0·95 (0·82–1·09), P:0·453 1·01 (0·88–1·16), P:0·9 0·77 (0·65–0·9), P:0·001 0·71 (0·56–0·9), P:0·004 1·38 (1·23–1·55), P:< 0·001 1·14 (1–1·29), P:0·046 1·12 (0·93–1·35), P:0·247
4th quintile 1·33 (1·22–1·45), P:< 0·001 1·06 (0·96–1·17), P:0·251 1·06 (0·91–1·25), P:0·433 1·17 (1·02–1·33), P:0·023 0·88 (0·75–1·04), P:0·125 0·88 (0·69–1·13), P:0·331 1·58 (1·41–1·77), P:< 0·001 1·22 (1·07–1·39), P:0·003 1·21 (0·99–1·49), P:0·061
5th quintile (richest) 1·13 (1·04–1·22), P:0·006 0·87 (0·79–0·97), P:0·011 0·88 (0·74–1·04), P:0·137 1·09 (0·96–1·24), P:0·179 0·78 (0·67–0·92), P:0·003 0·73 (0·56–0·95), P:0·02 1·24 (1·11–1·39), P:< 0·001 0·96 (0·83–1·1), P:0·526 0·99 (0·79–1·25), P:0·942
Life style related variables
 Appropriate fruit and vegetable consumption No 1·35 (1·24–1·47), P:< 0·001 1·43 (1·26–1·63), P:< 0·001 1·4 (1·23–1·59), P:< 0·001 1·41 (1·24–1·6)), P:< 0·001 1·58 (1·31–1·91), P:< 0·001 1·62 (1·32–1·99), P:< 0·001 1·27 (1·13–1·43), P:< 0·001 1·29 (1·09–1·53), P:0·003 1·28 (1·07–1·52), P:0·006
Yes 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
 High salt intake No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1·22 (1·05–1·42), P:0·011 1·21 (1·04–1·41), P:0·014 1·06 (0·9–1·24), P:0·5 1·2 (0·88–1·65), P:0·242 1·21 (0·88–1·68), P:0·242 1·16 (0·82–1·63), P:0·402 1·02 (0·85–1·21), P:0·854 1·02 (0·85–1·21), P:0·86 1·05 (0·88–1·26), P:0·573
 Smoking Never smoker 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Ever smoker 0·78 (0·72–0·84), P:< 0·001 0·85 (0·75–0·96), P:0·008 1·24 (1·07–1·43), P:0·004 1·2 (1·09–1·31), P:< 0·001 1·18 (1·03–1·35), P:0·018 1·2 (1·03–1·4), P:0·019 0·92 (0·68–1·25), P:0·602 1·01 (0·65–1·57), P:0·965 1·08 (0·69–1·68), P:0·733
 Alcohol consumption No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 0·62 (0·52–0·75), P:< 0·001 0·65 (0·55–0·76), P:< 0·001 0·78 (0·65–0·93), P:0·005 0·87 (0·71–1·07), P:0·187 0·81 (0·68–0·96), P:0·015 0·87 (0·72–1·04), P:0·135 0·66 (0·38–1·14), P:0·138 0·57 (0·34–0·96), P:0·036 0·48 (0·29–0·8), P:0·005
 Injury No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 0·9 (0·82–1), P:0·041 0·96 (0·83–1·1), P:0·562 0·99 (0·85–1·14), P:0·861 0·94 (0·81–1·08), P:0·359 0·94 (0·77–1·15), P:0·551 1 (0·8–1·25), P:0·999 0·94 (0·82–1·07), P:0·335 0·98 (0·81–1·2), P:0·872 1 (0·82–1·22), P:0·999
 Personal car ownership No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1·09 (1·03–1·15), P:0·002 1·18 (1·09–1·28), P:< 0·001 1·23 (1·11–1·35), P:< 0·001 1·2 (1·11–1·31), P:< 0·001 1·36 (1·2–1·54), P:< 0·001 1·37 (1·17–1·6), P:< 0·001 1·12 (1·04–1·2), P:0·003 1·19 (1·07–1·33), P:0·001 1·14 (1–1·3), P:0·051
Metabolic risk factors
 Hypertension No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1·06 (0·99–1·13), P:0·079 0·91 (0·83–1·01), P:0·075 1·03 (0·92–1·14), P:0·648 1·15 (1·04–1·27), P:0·008 1·02 (0·87–1·18), P:0·829 1·09 (0·92–1·29), P:0·319 0·99 (0·9–1·08), P:0·771 0·89 (0·78–1·02), P:0·09 0·97 (0·84–1·12), P:0·686
 Past medical history of cardiovascular disease No 1·0 1·0 1·0   1·0 1·0   1·0 1·0
Yes 1·51 (1·09–2·09), P:0·013 1·09 (0·79–1·51), P:0·608 1·21 (0·86–1·71), P:0·275 1·93 (1·26–2·95), P:0·002 1·28 (0·86–1·9), P:0·222 1·28 (0·84–1·94), P:0·245 1·32 (0·8–2·18), P:0·283 1·04 (0·59–1·85), P:0·887 1·04 (0·57–1·9), P:0·892
 Diabetes mellitus No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1·23 (1·06–1·42), P:0·005 1·19 (1·02–1·38), P:0·025 1·25 (1·07–1·47), P:0·005 1·17 (0·94–1·46), P:0·152 1·04 (0·83–1·3), P:0·752 1·07 (0·83–1·37), P:0·606 1·26 (1·05–1·53), P:0·015 1·36 (1·11–1·67), P:0·003 1·39 (1·12–1·71), P:0·002
 Dyslipidemia No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1 (0·9–1·1), P:0·926 0·91 (0·82–1), P:0·057 0·94 (0·84–1·04), P:0·236 1·15 (0·99–1·34), P:0·064 1·07 (0·91–1·25), P:0·412 1·06 (0·89–1·26), P:0·504 0·87 (0·77–0·99), P:0·03 0·82 (0·72–0·94), P:0·004 0·86 (0·75–0·99), P:0·039
 Abdominal obesity No 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Yes 1·42 (1·34–1·5), P:< 0·001 1·39 (1·25–1·54), P:< 0·001 1·1 (0·98–1·24), P:0·106 1·45 (1·31–1·61), P:< 0·001 1·27 (1·06–1·53), P:0·009 1·25 (1·03–1·52), P:0·027 1·01 (0·93–1·08), P:0·864 0·99 (0·85–1·14), P:0·848 1·04 (0·9–1·21), P:0·611
 BMI (body mass index) Under weight 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0 1·0
Normal weight 1·07 (0·93–1·24), P:0·334 0·86 (0·68–1·08), P:0·191 0·91 (0·71–1·17), P:0·469 1·17 (0·95–1·44), P:0·142 0·95 (0·69–1·3), P:0·736 0·99 (0·7–1·39), P:0·946 0·95 (0·77–1·16), P:0·597 0·75 (0·53–1·05), P:0·097 0·84 (0·58–1·21), P:0·339
Over weight 1·09 (1·02–1·16), P:0·008 0·95 (0·85–1·05), P:0·304 0·96 (0·86–1·07), P:0·464 1·16 (1·06–1·28), P:0·001 0·99 (0·86–1·15), P:0·913 0·98 (0·83–1·15), P:0·775 0·98 (0·9–1·08), P:0·717 1·02 (0·88–1·19), P:0·753 0·96 (0·82–1·11), P:0·565
Obesity 1·38 (1·28–1·48), P:< 0·001 1·03 (0·9–1·17), P:0·7 1·06 (0·92–1·22), P:0·44 1·47 (1·31–1·66), P:< 0·001 1·13 (0·91–1·41), P:0·271 1·14 (0·89–1·44), P:0·295 1·08 (0·98–1·19), P:0·106 1·1 (0·93–1·32), P:0·271 1·03 (0·86–1·24), P:0·759
  1. OR Odds Ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval
  2. aandb report ORs separately and concurrently adjusted for sociodemographic, life style related variables, and metabolic risk factors, respectively