Skip to main content

Table 2 Description of the analyzed sample and prevalence (95% confidence interval) of repeated high blood pressure

From: Repeated high blood pressure at 6 and 11 years at the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort study

Characteristics N (%) HSBPa (N = 53) HDBPb (N = 74) HSDBPc
(N = 40)
Sex   0.018 0.019 0.525
 Male 1637 (51.45) 2.2 (1.5–2.9) 1.7 (1.1–2.3) 1.4 (0.8–2.0)
 Female 1545 (48.55) 1.1 (0.6–1.6) 3.0 (2.1–3.8) 1.1 (0.6–1.6)
Skin color   0.377 0.260 0.235
 White 2136 (67.13) 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 2.1 (1.5–2.7) 1.1 (0.6–1.5)
 Non-white 1046 (32.87) 1.3 (0.6–2.0) 2.8 (1.8–3.8) 1.6 (0.9–2.4)
Gestational diabetes   0.029 0.735 0.144
 No 3074 (96.70) 1.6 (1.1–2.0) 2.3 (1.8–2.8) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
 Yes 105 (3.30) 4.8 (0.7–8.9) 2.9 (−0.3–6.1) 2.9 (−0.3–6.1)
Hypertension in pregnancy   0.143 0.409 0.580
 No 2413 (75,95) 1.5 (1.0–1.9) 2.2 (1.6–2.8) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
 Yes 764 (24,05) 2.2 (1.2–3.3) 2.7 (1.6–3.9) 1.4 (0.6–2.3)
Mothers’ age at childbirth   0.832 0.081 0.181
  ≤ 20 768 (24.15) 1.6 (0.7–2.4) 1.3 (0.5–2.1) 0.8 (0.2–1.4)
 21–25 822 (25.85) 1.5 (0.6–2.3) 2.4 (1.4–3.5) 1.0 (0.3–1.6)
 26–30 697 (21.92) 1.6 (0.7–2.5) 3.3 (2.0–4.6) 2.0 (1.0–3.1)
  > 30 893 (28.08) 2.0 (1.1–2.9) 2.4 (1.4–3.3) 1.3 (0.6–2.1)
Family history hypertension   0.442 0.021 0.489
 None 2079 (73.80) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 2.2 (1.6–2.8) 1.2 (0.7–1.7)
 From mother 354 (12.57) 1.7 (0.3–3.0) 1.7 (0.3–3.0) 1.1 (0.0–2.2)
 From father 316 (11.22) 2.5 (0.8–4.3) 2.5 (0.8–4.3) 1.3 (0.0–2.5)
 From both 68 (2.41) 2.9 (−1.1–7.0) 8.8 (2.0–15.6) 2.9 (−1.1–7.0)
Household income (quintiles)   0.148 0.053 0.256
 1 (poorest) 608 (19.11) 1.5 (0.5–2.4) 3.6 (2.1–5.1) 1.3 (0.4–2.2)
 2 649 (20.40) 0.9 (0.2–1.7) 1.7 (0.7–2.7) 1.1 (0.3–1.9)
 3 634 (19.92) 2.1 (0.9–3.2) 1.3 (0.4–2.1) 1.1 (0.3–1.9)
 4 687 (21.59) 1.3 (0.5–2.2) 2.3 (1.2–3.5) 0.7 (0.1–1.4)
 5 (wealthiest) 604 (18.98) 2.6 (1.4–3.9) 2.8 (1.5–4.1) 2.2 (1.0–3.3)
Smoking during pregnancy   0.463 0.144 0.935
 No 2325 (73.07) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 2.6 (1.9–3.2) 1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 Yes 857 (26.93) 1.8 (0.9–2.6) 1.6 (0.8–2.5) 1.3 (0.5–2.0)
Birth weight   0.452 0.057 1.000
 ≥ 2500 g 2911 (91.48) 1.6 (1.2–2.1) 2.2 (1.6–2.7) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
 < 2500 g 271 (8.52) 2.2 (0.5–4.0) 4.1 (1.7–6.4) 1.5 (0.0–2.9)
Weight-for-gestational age   0.752 0.715 0.772
 Small 392 (12.33) 2.0 (0.6–3.4) 2.0 (0.6–3.4) 2.0 (0.6–3.4)
 Adequate 2554 (80.31) 1.6 (1.1–2.1) 2.3 (1.7–2.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
 Large 234 (7.36) 1.7 (0.0–3.4) 3.0 (0.8–5.2) 0.9 (0.3–0.2)
Gestational age (weeks)   0.178 0.011 0.300
 < 34 72 (2.26) 1.4 (−1.3–4.1) 8.3 (1.9–14.8) 1.4 (− 1.3–4.1)
 34–36 355 (11.16) 2.8 (1.1–4.5) 2.5 (0.9–4.2) 2.3 (0.7–3.8)
 ≥ 37 2753 (86.57) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 2.1 (1.6–2.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.5)
Physical activity   0.441 0.896 0.138
 Active 896 (28.40) 1.3 (0.6–2.1) 2.2 (1.3–3.2) 1.1 (0.4–1.8)
 No active 2259 (71.60) 1.8 (1.2–2.3) 2.4 (1.8–3.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.7)
Sodium intake (mg) (quintiles)   0.428 0.769 0.858
 1 (lowest) 622 (19.60) 1.0 (0.2–1.7) 2.1 (1.0–3.2) 1.4 (0.5–2.4)
 2 644 (20.29) 1.7 (0.7–2.7) 3.0 (1.6–4.3) 1.4 (0.5–2.3)
 3 640 (20.16) 2.2 (1.1–3.3) 2.5 (1.3–3.7) 1.6 (0.6–2.5)
 4 632 (19.91) 1.4 (0.5–2.3) 1.9 (0.8–3.0) 0.8 (0.1–1.5)
 5 (highest) 636 (20.04) 2.0 (0.9–3.1) 2.2 (1.1–3.3) 1.1 (0.3–1.9)
Weekly consumption of package chips   0.229 0.748 0.721
 None 299 (9.42) 2.3 (0.6–4.1) 2.3 (0.6–4.1) 2.3 (0.6–4.1)
 Up to 1 package 1586 (49.97) 1.9 (1.2–2.6) 2.1 (1.4–2.8) 1.3 (0.8–1.9)
 2 packages 758 (23.88) 0.9 (0.2–1.6) 2.8 (1.6–3.9) 0.8 (0.2–1.4)
  ≥ 3 packages 531 (16.73) 1.7 (0.6–2.8) 2.4 (1.1–3.8) 1.1 (0.2–2.0)
BMI-for-age Z score (11 years old)   0.011 1.000 0.240
 Normal 1769 (55.59) 1.1 (0.6–1.6) 2.4 (1.7–3.1) 1.1 (0.6–1.6)
 Overweight 712 (22.38) 1.8 (0.8–2.8) 2.2 (1.2–3.3) 1.8 (0.8–2.8)
 Obesity 701 (22.03) 2.9 (1.6–4.1) 2.3 (1.2–3.4) 2.9 (1.6–4.1)
Total   1.7 (1.2–2.1) 2.3 (1.8–2.9) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
  1. *All P-values calculated by Fisher’s Exact chi-square test
  2. aHSBP High systolic blood pressure, bHDBP High diastolic blood pressure, cHSDBP High systolic and diastolic blood pressure