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Table 1 Table of covariate distribution on category of infancy weight gain

From: Infancy weight gain, parental socioeconomic position, and childhood overweight and obesity: a Danish register-based cohort study

  Slow
(n = 3796)
Mean
(n = 9300)
Rapid
(n = 3800)
Very rapid
(n = 2998)
Total
(n = 19,894)
X2
p-value
Child sex, n (%)
 Male 1919 (50.6) 4668 (50.2) 1930 (50.8) 1624 (54.2) 10,141 (51.0)  
 Female 1877 (49.4) 4632 (49.8) 1870 (49.2) 1374 (45.8) 9753 (49.0) 0.002
Size for gestational age at birth, n (%)
 SGA 33 (0.9) 398 (4.3) 378 (10.0) 487 (16.3) 1296 (6.5)  
 AGA 2574 (67.9) 7872 (84.7) 3246 (85.6) 2431 (81.2) 16,123 (81.1)  
 LGA 1185 (31.2) 1022 (11.0) 170 (4.5) 74 (2.5) 2451 (12.3) < 0.0001
 Missing 4 8 6 6 24  
Gestational age at birth, n (%)
 37 weeks 52 (1.4) 296 (3.2) 262 (6.9) 392 (13.1) 1002 (5.0)  
 38 weeks 284 (7.5) 1106 (11.9) 664 (17.5) 778 (26.0) 2832 (14.3)  
 39 weeks 713 (18.8) 2244 (24.1) 978 (25.8) 713 (23.8) 4648 (23.4)  
 40 weeks 1327 (35.0) 3057 (32.9) 1131 (29.8) 694 (23.2) 6209 (31.2)  
 41 weeks 1416 (37.3) 2589 (27.9) 759 (20.0) 415 (13.9) 5179 (26.1) < 0.0001
 Missing 4 8 6 6 24  
Mode of delivery, n (%)
 Caesarean section 706 (18.6) 1751 (18.8) 788 (20.7) 719 (24.0) 3964 (19.9)  
 Vaginal 3090 (81.4) 7549 (81.2) 3012 (79.3) 2279 (76.0) 15,930 (80.1) < 0.0001
Parity, n (%)
 1 1448 (38.2) 4694 (50.6) 2191 (57.9) 1871 (62.7) 10,204 (51.4)  
 2 1699 (44.8) 3410 (36.8) 1187 (31.4) 781 (26.2) 7077 (35.7)  
  > 2 643 (17.0) 1171 (12.6) 408 (10.8) 334 (11.2) 2556 (12.9) < 0.0001
 Missing 6 25 14 12 57  
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, n (%)
 Underweight 126 (3.3) 358 (3.9) 146 (3.9) 125 (4.2) 755 (3.8)  
 Normal weight 2311 (61.2) 5862 (63.4) 2363 (62.7) 1850 (62.0) 12,386 (62.7)  
 Overweight 816 (21.6) 1859 (20.1) 767 (20.4) 616 (20.7) 4058 (20.5)  
 Obesity I 348 (9.2) 768 (8.3) 313 (8.3) 271 (9.1) 1700 (8.6)  
 Obesity II + III 173 (4.6) 396 (4.3) 179 (4.8) 120 (4.0) 868 (4.4) 0.23
 Missing 22 57 32 16 127  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy, n (%)
 Yes 140 (3.7) 459 (5.0) 283 (7.5) 302 (10.2) 1184 (6.0)  
 Stopped during pregnancy 108 (2.9) 318 (3.4) 141 (3.7) 116 (3.9) 683 (3.5)  
 No 3516 (93.4) 8454 (91.6) 3338 (88.7) 2545 (85.9) 17,853 (90.5) < 0.0001
 Missing 32 69 38 35 174  
Gestational diabetes, n (%)
 Yes 136 (3.6) 321 (3.5) 143 (3.8) 104 (3.5) 704 (3.5)  
 No 3660 (96.4) 8979 (96.5) 3657 (96.2) 2894 (96.5) 19,190 (96.5) 0.84
Duration of breastfeeding, n (%)
 0–2 months 589 (22.4) 1566 (24.9) 761 (30.2) 732 (37.6) 3648 (27.3)  
 2–4 months 455 (17.3) 1121 (17.8) 461 (18.3) 348 (17.9) 2385 (17.8)  
 4–6 months 1164 (44.3) 2687 (42.7) 973 (38.7) 644 (33.1) 5468 (40.9)  
  > 6 months 418 (15.9) 919 (14.6) 321 (12.8) 222 (11.4) 1880 (14.0) < 0.0001
 Missing 1170 3007 1284 1052 6513  
Level of maternal education, n (%)
 ISCED 0–2 1345 (35.4) 3729 (40.1) 1744 (45.9) 1435 (47.9) 8253 (41.5)  
 ISCED 4 885 (23.3) 2054 (22.1) 807 (21.2) 633 (21.1) 4379 (22.0)  
 ISCED 5–6 996 (26.2) 2230 (24.0) 771 (20.3) 579 (19.3) 4576 (23.0)  
 ISCED 7–8 570 (15.0) 1287 (13.8) 478 (12.6) 351 (11.7) 2686 (13.5) < 0.0001
Household income (quartiles), n (%)
 Low 727 (19.2) 2202 (23.7) 1019 (26.8) 884 (29.5) 4832 (24.3)  
 Low-middle 921 (24.3) 2331 (25.1) 965 (25.4) 741 (24.7) 4958 (24.9)  
 High-middle 1052 (27.7) 2406 (25.9) 925 (24.3) 708 (23.6) 5091 (25.6)  
 High 1096 (28.9) 2361 (25.4) 891 (23.4) 665 (22.2) 5013 (25.2) < 0.0001
Overweight or obesity at follow-up, n (%)
 Yes 95 (2.5) 470 (5.1) 395 (10.4) 537 (17.9) 1497 (7.5)  
 No 3701 (97.5) 8830 (94.9) 3405 (89.6) 2461 (82.1) 18,397 (92.5) < 0.0001
  1. Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 19,894), stratified by infant weight gain category, shown in numbers (col%). Abbreviations: SGA (Small-for-gestational age), AGA (Appropriate-for-gestational age), LGA (Large-for-gestational age), ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education)