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Table 2 The effect of high Zika knowledge compared to low on preventive actions among Americans traveling to Zika endemic countries (N = 460)

From: Zika knowledge and prevention practices among U.S. travelers: a large cross-sectional survey study

Adopted preventive action Participant Zika Knowledge Comparison of Zika Knowledge (high vs. low)
High Zika Knowledge
N (%)
Low Zika Knowledge
N (%)
ORa 95% CI
I. Effective preventive actions
 Vector-related prevention
  Window and door screens 58 (25.6) 19 (8.2) 3.87* (2.26–6.89)
  Other: Avoid Zika areas 3 (1.3) 1 (0.4) 3.11 (0.39–63.07)
  Remove standing water 68 (30.0) 31 (13.3) 2.79* (1.75–4.52)
  Mosquito repellant 107 (47.1) 58 (24.9) 2.69* (1.82–4.01)
  Covering clothes 78 (34.4) 40 (17.2) 2.53* (1.64–3.94)
  Spray/fumigate 35 (15.4) 18 (7.7) 2.18* (1.21–4.05)
  Mosquito coils/fire 55 (24.2) 35 (15.5) 1.75* (1.10–2.81)
  Mosquito nets 39 (17.2) 34 (14.6) 1.21 (0.74–2.01)
 Sexual-related prevention
  Abstinence 17 (7.5) 3 (1.3) 6.21* (2.05–26.85)
  Condoms 30 (13.2) 6 (2.6) 5.76* (1.43–6.90)
II. Non-effective preventive actions
 Non-barrier contraception 9 (4.0) 4 (1.7) 2.36 (0.76–8.83)
  1. aOR indicates odds ratio from a bivariate logistic regression. The OR can be interpreted as the odds of engaging in the preventive action for high Zika knowledge participants compared to the odds of engaging in the preventive action for low Zika knowledge participants
  2. *Indicates significant finding at an a priori α value of 0.05