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Table 2 Baseline attributes of the participants according to MCI status at 18 months [presented as the mean (sd) or n (%)]

From: Incidence and predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) within a multi-ethnic Asian populace: a community-based longitudinal study

Parameters N = 1227 p Value
MCI (n = 179) Without MCI (n = 986)
Age, mean (sd): 69.2 (5.9) 68.1 (5.8) 0.026*
Sex
 Men 101 (17.6) 473 (82.4) 0.042*
 Women 78 (13.2) 513 (86.8)  
Ethnic
 Malay 111 (14.5) 655 (85.5) 0.266
 Non-Malay 68 (17.0) 331 (83.0)  
Education (years)
  ≤ 6 years 146 (16.9) 716 (83.1) 0.012*
  > 6 years 33 (10.9) 270 (89.1)  
Smoking
 Smoker 58 (16.2) 299 (83.8) 0.597
 Non-smoker 121 (15.0) 687 (85.0)  
Living alone 22 (18.0) 100 (82.0) 0.425
Body Mass Index
  < 22 kg/m2 35 (14.1) 214 (85.9) 0.817
 22–27 kg/m2 96 (15.8) 513 (84.2)  
  > 27 kg/m2 47 (15.5) 257 (84.5)  
% Body Fat, mean (sd) 39.6 (9.8) 39.1 (10.3) 0.580
Blood Pressure
 Diastolic (mmHg), mean (sd) 77.2 (13.0) 77.5 (13.5) 0.769
 Systolic (mmHg), mean (sd) 142.3 (24.2) 140.1 (22.3) 0.246
Calf Circumference (cm), mean (sd) 33.3 (3.5) 33.5 (3.9) 0.559
Waist Circumference (cm), mean (sd) 88.5 (10.8) 88.0 (11.5) 0.550
MUAC (cm), mean (sd) 28.6 (3.0) 28.6 (3.6) 0.881
TUG (seconds), mean (sd) 11.3 (2.7) 11.3 (3.7) 0.953
Grip Strength (kg), mean (sd) 22.4 (7.7) 22.5 (7.4) 0.880
GDS, mean (sd) 2.5 (2.3) 2.3 (2.0) 0.256
Health Conditions
 Diabetes 45 (15.5) 246 (84.5) 1.000
 Hypertension 91 (16.1) 473 (83.9) 0.516
 Heart Disease 22 (18.6) 96 (81.4) 0.284
 Lung Disease 2 (22.2) 7 (77.8) 0.635
 Stroke 3 (14.3) 18 (85.7) 1.000
Neurocognitive
 M-MMSE, mean (sd) 23.0 (4.2) 23.5 (4.7) 0.173
 Span Digit, mean (sd) 7.5 (2.4) 7.7 (2.4) 0.326
 RAVLT BL, mean (sd) 36.1 (8.4) 40.2 (10.3) < 0.001*
 RAVLT DR, mean (sd) 37.3 (8.3) 41.1 (9.8) < 0.001*
Lifestyle
 Physical activity, mean (sd) 9.4 (4.1) 10.0 (4.3) 0.068
 Social activity, mean (sd) 15.0 (5.1) 15.7 (5.6) 0.143
 Mental activity, mean (sd) 12.4 (4.2) 13.6 (4.7) 0.002*
  1. Using independent t-test and χ2-test
  2. *p < 0.05 (significant)