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Table 2 Demographics and riding behaviors of 305 child passengers and adult operators with respect to injured body regions and injury severity

From: Effects of helmet nonuse and seating position on patterns and severity of injuries in child motorcycle passengers

Characteristic Head/face injury Chest/abdomen injury Extremity injury Severe injury
Absence (N = 136) Presence (N = 169) p value Absence (N = 259) Presence (N = 46) p value Absence (N = 58) Presence (N = 247) p value ISS < 5 (N = 277) ISS ≥ 5 (N = 28) p value
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Child passenger
 Age (years)
   ≤ 3 19 (14.0) 58 (34.3) < 0.001 70 (27.0) 7 (15.2) 0.223 29 (50.0) 48 (19.4) < 0.001 71 (25.6) 6 (21.4) 0.034
  4~6 21 (15.4) 50 (29.6)   58 (22.4) 13 (28.3)   17 (29.3) 54 (21.9)   59 (21.3) 12 (42.9)  
   ≥ 7 96 (70.6) 61 (36.1)   131 (50.6) 26 (56.5)   12 (20.7) 145 (58.7)   147 (53.1) 10 (35.7)  
 Boy/girl 76 (55.9) 85 (50.3) 0.331 133 (51.4) 28 (60.9) 0.233 29 (50.0) 132 (53.4) 0.637 146 (52.7) 15 (53.6) 0.931
 Helmet type
  Unhelmeted 34 (25.6) 94 (57.0) < 0.001 108 (42.5) 20 (45.5) 0.839 32 (55.2) 96 (40.0) 0.111 109 (40.2) 19 (70.4) 0.008
  Half-coverage 87 (65.4) 64 (38.8)   129 (50.8) 22 (50.0)   23 (39.6) 128 (53.3)   143 (52.8) 8 (29.6)  
  Full-coverage 12 (9.0) 7 (4.2)   17 (6.7) 2 (4.5)   3 (5.2) 16 (6.7)   19 (7.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Being seated in front of the operator 44 (32.6) 111 (65.7) < 0.001 129 (50.0) 26 (56.5) 0.415 44 (75.9) 111 (45.1) < 0.001 136 (49.3) 19 (67.9) 0.061
 Having multiple passengers 52 (38.5) 73 (43.2) 0.410 107 (41.5) 18 (39.1) 0.766 24 (41.4) 101 (41.1) 0.964 111 (40.2) 14 (50.0) 0.316
 Riding speed (mean ± SD, km/h) 27.9 ±13.5 30.3 ±13.5 0.146 29.0 ±13.0 30.4 ±16.7 0.566 26.8 ±11.6 29.8 ±13.9 0.161 28.5 ±13.3 36.5 ±14.1 0.007
Adult operator
 Age (years)
   ≤ 35 41 (36.0) 61 (42.6) 0.023 84 (38.5) 18 (46.2) 0.302 24 (51.1) 78 (37.1) 0.090 93 (39.7) 9 (39.1) 0.873
  36~50 55 (48.2) 46 (32.2)   90 (41.3) 11 (28.2)   12 (25.5) 89 (42.4)   91 (38.9) 10 (43.5)  
   ≥ 51 18 (17.8) 36 (25.2)   44 (20.2) 10 (25.6)   11 (23.4) 43 (20.5)   50 (21.4) 4 (17.4)  
 Male/female 39 (28.7) 52 (30.8) 0.691 72 (27.8) 19 (41.3) 0.065 14 (24.1) 77 (31.2) 0.292 83 (30.0) 8 (28.6) 0.878
 Educational level
  Elementary or below 16 (16.0) 26 (19.4) 0.011 36 (17.8) 6 (18.7) 0.985 5 (11.4) 37 (19.5) 0.182 38 (18.1) 4 (16.7) 0.395
  High school 48 (48.0) 83 (61.9)   113 (55.9) 18 (56.3)   30 (68.2) 101 (53.1)   120 (57.1) 11 (45.8)  
  College and above 36 (36.0) 25 (18.7)   53 (26.2) 8 (25.0)   9 (20.4) 52 (27.4)   52 (24.8) 9 (37.5)  
  1. ISS Injury Severity Score