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Table 1 Indicators and measuring instruments for the different types of outcomes for health promotion [14, 23]

From: Effective health promoting school for better health of children and adolescents: indicators for success

Types of outcomes Indicators to be measured Measuring instrument
Health and social outcomes Depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health status, perceived academic achievement Validated questionnaires: Satisfaction with Life Scale (LIFE), Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS).
Intermediate outcomes Attitudes, lifestyles and risk behaviours School environment and school ethos School health services Questionnaires to students and schools, school observation, documentary review, interviews
Health promotion outcomes Health skills and knowledge, and self-efficacy School health policies Networking with parents, the local community and other schools to launch health programmes Questionnaires to students and schools, curriculum review, documentary review, individual or focus group interviews, participant observation
Health promotion actions School timetable for health education activities (formal and extra-curricular) PTA and community involvement Documentary review