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Table 7 Relationship between area-level SES and type of urbanization with average minutes of MVPA per day

From: Relationships between area-level socioeconomic status and urbanization with active transportation, independent mobility, outdoor time, and physical activity among Canadian children

Independent variables Dependent variable: MVPA per day
Girls Boys
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Fixed Effects
  (Intercept) 58.45 51.51–65.38 < 0.001 67.52 59.31–75.74 < 0.001
 School SES: low (ref: high) −1.13 −6.63 - 4.36 0.687 −1.54 −7.83 - 4.74 0.632
 Site: Vancouver (ref: Ottawa) 4.73 − 1.83 - 11.28 0.163 0.96 −6.72 - 8.64 0.806
 Site: Trois-Rivières 0.57 −6.40 - 7.55 0.873 4.54 −3.53 - 12.61 0.275
 Type of urbanization: suburban (ref: urban) 1.05 −5.48 - 7.57 0.754 1.07 −6.41 - 8.56 0.779
 Type of urbanization: rural −0.07 −6.78 - 6.63 0.983 2.50 −5.31 - 10.30 0.533
 Parental education: high school or less (ref: University) 2.05 −2.22 - 6.32 0.352 −2.85 −8.77 - 3.08 0.351
 Parental education: college 0.68 −2.56 - 3.92 0.683 −3.66 −7.94 - 0.62 0.099
 Age in years (centered) −1.26 −2.64 - 0.12 0.080 −3.67 −5.55 - -1.79 < 0.001
 Car ownership: ≥ 2 cars (ref: ≤ 1 car) 0.98 −1.78 - 3.74 0.490 1.45 −2.42 - 5.31 0.467
 Home ownership: yes (ref: no) −0.48 −3.64 - 2.68 0.769 0.66 −3.77 - 5.09 0.771
Random Effects
 σ2 364.542 560.441
 τ00, School_ID 53.241 62.024
 NSchool_ID 37 37
 ICCSchool_ID 0.127 0.100
 Observations 935 764
 R2 / Ω02 0.160 / 0.153 0.153 / 0.144
 AIC 8249.166 7071.202
 Deviance 8223.166 7045.202
  1. MVPA Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, B Unstandardized beta coefficient, CI Confidence interval, p P-value, SES Socioeconomic status, σ2 variance within cluster groups (schools), τ00 variance within the dependent variable between schools, ICC Intraclass correlation coefficient, R2 / Ω02 pseudo R2 estimates, AIC Akaike information criterion