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Table 1 Information of Selected Studies

From: The effect of smoke-free legislation on the mortality rate of acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis

Author Study location National study Effective date of a law Study period Target people Comprehensiveness of a law Previous ban in place Size of Population at risk AMI deaths cases RR value 95% Confidence interval AMI definition Source of data Measure /Statistical Method Control variable
Europe
Joan R Villalbí2011 Spain Yes January 1, 2006 January 12,004- December 31,2006 Ages ≥35 years Workplaces (with exemptions for bars, cafes, restaurants, night clubs and discos) Yes 68,862 0.90 0.88–0.92 ICD-10: CM 055 the National Statistics Institute (INE in its Spanish acronym) Poisson regression Age, gender
Ages ≥35 years, male 40,080 0.90 0.88–0.93
Ages ≥35 years, female 28,782 0.90 0.87–0.92
January 1, 2004- December 31,2007 Ages ≥35 years 90,382 0.86 0.84–0.88
Ages ≥35 years, male 52,583 0.86 0.83–0.88
Ages ≥35 years, female 37,799 0.86 0.84–0.89
FernandoAguero2013 Girona, Spain. No January 1, 2006 January 1, 2002-December 31, 2008 Ages 35–74 years All indoor public places and workplaces but allowed some exceptions in hospitality venues Yes 891 0.82 0.71–0.94 ICD-9: 410–414, 798;
ICD-10:I20–I25, I513, R960, R961, R98, R99
The REGICOR Study, conducted in six counties of the Girona province in the north east of Spain Poisson regression model Age, sex, smoking status, existing trend, and seasonality
Ages 35–74 years, female 200 0.72 0.52–0.97
Ages 35–74 years, male 691 0.85 0.72–0.99
Ages 35–64 years 359 0.94 0.76–1.17
Ages 65–74 years 532 0.74 0.62–0.89
Sericea Stallings-Smith 2013 Ireland Yes March 29, 2004 January 1, 2000-December 31,2007 Ages ≥35 years Workplaces including restaurants, bars, and pubs Yes 1,900,000 0.97 0.92–1.02 ICD-9:410; ICD-10:I21 Central Statistics Office (CSO) Ireland. Poisson linear regression model with interrupted time-series analysis Time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence
Ages ≥35 years, male 0.97 0.91–1.02
Ages ≥35 years, female 0.97 0.91–1.03
Ages 35–64 years 0.97 0.86–1.07
Ages 65–84 years 0.94 0.89–1.00
Ages> 85 years 1.01 0.94–1.09
United States
Kanaka D. Shetty2011 United States Yes 1995 1990–2004 All All workplaces except bars and restaurants Yes 2,018,548 1.02 0.99–1.05 ICD-9:410; ICD-10:I21 Multiple Cause of Death (MCD) database Region-level fixed effects multivariate linear regression model Secular trends and regions
Melanie S. Dove 2010 Massachusetts, US No July 2004 January 11,999- -December 31, 2006 Ages ≥35 years All workplaces, including restaurants and bars No 2,507,320 20,806 0.90 0.86–0.95 ICD-10:I21 Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics Poisson regression model adjusted for a linear time term Long-term trend, season, particulate matter less than 2.5 lm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5),10–12 and influenza
Ages > 35 years Yes 835,597 6176 1.01 0.92–1.11
Ages > 35 years 3,342,917 26,982 0.93 0.89–0.97
Ages > 35 years, male 1,548,463 13,595 0.95 0.89–1.01
Ages > 35 years, female 1,794,454 13,387 0.90 0.85–0.96
Ages 35–64 years 2,482,755 4162 0.92 0.82–1.04
Ages 65–75 years 427,830 4657 0.99 0.89–1.11
Ages> 75 years 432,332 18,163 0.91 0.86–0.96
McAlister 2010 Jefferson County, Texas, USA No Autumn of 2000 1996–2005 All Unclear 250,000 0.84 0.77–0.91 ICD-10:I21 Texas Department of State Health Services Bivariate piecewise linear regression model None
Brad Rodu2012 Utah, US No January 1, 1995 1991–1995 Ages > 45 years Enclosed indoor places of public access, bars exempted No 488,000 767 0.92 0.90–0.94 ICD-9:410; ICD-10:I21 Compressed Mortality File from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Test for difference between two independent proportions None
California, US January 1, 1995 1991–1995 Enclosed workplaces and restaurants without bars Yes 9,100,000 17,656 0.98 0.97–0.99
South Dakota, US July 1, 2002 1999–2003 Most workplaces, bars and casinos exempted No 287,000 686 1.09 0.95–1.25
Delaware, US November 27, 2002 1999–2003 Most indoor public places, including restaurants and bars No 305,000 433 0.92 0.90–0.93
Florida, US July 1, 2003 2000–2004 Most indoor public places, including restaurants and bars No 720,000 10,073 0.91 0.91–0.92
New York, US July 24, 2003 2000–2004 All workplaces, including restaurants and bars Yes 720,000 10,347 0.88 0.83–0.93
Carl Bartecchi 2006 Pueblo, United States No July 1, 2003 January 1, 2002 - December 31,2004 All Inside the workplace and all buildings open to the public Yes 147,751 0.77 0.64–0.93 ICD-9:410 Health Statistics Section of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Poisson regression model, with the test of linear contrasts between pre-ordinance and post-ordinance changes. Time, location, time-by location
interaction, and harmonics to account for seasonality
Other locations
Tania 2016 São Paulo city, Brazil No August 1, 2009 January 2005- December, 2010 All Prohibited the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products in closed and semi-closed places, public and private, with the exception of residences, places of religious worship where smoking is part of the ceremony and sites designated for the consumption of tobacco products. Yes 39,177 0.95 0.93–0.96 ICD-10: I21,I22,I23,I24 Mortality Information System (SIM) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) with Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) Total hospital admission, carbon monoxide, minimum temperature and air relative humidity
TQ Thach Hong Kong, China No 1 January 2007 1 January 2001–31 December 2011 All Workplaces including restaurants, bars, and pubs No 0.87 0.81–0.94 ICD-10:I21 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) Government Census and Statistics Department Poisson regression model Age, gender
  1. Note:In these articles, the relative risk of AMI mortality were not provided. So based on provided AMI death, AMI mortality and population data, we calculated the RR value of AMI mortality