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Table 2 The effect of neighbourhood social reciprocity on mental health; three-level multilevel longitudinal correlation regression analysis of neighbourhood social reciprocity, individual characteristics and CES-D score (n = 24,620 in 450 neighbourhoods)

From: Neighborhood social reciprocity and mental health among older adults in China: the mediating effects of physical activity, social interaction, and volunteering

Variable Model 1
Beta (SE)
Fixed effects
 High social reciprocity (ref: low social reciprocity) −0.175** (0.084)
 Neighbourhood social reciprocity −0.598** (0.288)
 Male (ref: female) −1.481*** (0.099)
 Age −0.049*** (0.007)
Educational attainment (ref: primary school or less)
 High school −0.750*** (0.111)
 College or more −0.969*** (0.324)
Marital status (ref: single, divorced or widowed)
 Married and living with spouse −0.326 (0.228)
 Married and living apart from spouse −1.046*** (0.112)
 Household size −0.065*** (0.018)
 Logarithm of household income per capita −0.035*** (0.011)
 Urban neighbourhood (ref: rural neighbourhood) −1.666*** (0.170)
 Cigarette use (ref: no) 0.372*** (0.091)
 Alcohol use (ref: no) −0.127 (0.088)
 Physical health status (ref: no problems) 1.278*** (0.084)
 Functional ability (ref: not limited) 2.787*** (0.080)
 Medical insurance (ref: no) 0.518*** (0.093)
 Constant 12.062*** (0.525)
Random effects
 Var (Neighbourhoods) 2.394**  
 Var (Individuals) 13.851**  
 Var (Within individuals) 17.833**  
 Number of years 3  
 Akaike information criterion (AIC) 154,503.300  
  1. SE standard error
  2. * = p < .10, ** = p < .05, *** = p < .01