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Table 3 Factors associated with minimum meal frequency in India, 2015–16 National Family and Health Survey

From: Prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices among children aged 6–23 months in India: a regional analysis

Characteristics North South East West Central North Eastern
aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI]
Type of Caste or tribe
 Scheduled Caste 1.00 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
 Scheduled tribe 1.11 (0.90, 1.37) 0.86 (0.61, 1.21) 1.08 (0.91, 1.28)   1.36 (1.19, 1.55) * 1.57 (1.20, 2.05) *
 Other backward class 1.10 (0.96, 1.27) 0.87 (0.73, 1.04) 0.85 (0.75, 0.96) *   1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 1.15 (0.85, 1.55)
 Others 1.19 (1.02, 1.38) * 0.77 (0.61, 0.98)* 0.79 (0.66, 0.94) *   0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 1.05 (0.79, 1.39)
Household Wealth Index
 Poorest   1.00 1.00    
 Poorer   1.24 (0.86, 1.80) 1.02 (0.90, 1.15)    
 Middle   1.22 (0.85, 1.75) 1.00 (0.85, 1.17)    
 Richer   1.13 (0.78, 1.65) 0.98 (0.80, 1.20)    
 Richest   1.64 (1.10, 2.45) * 1.41 (1.01, 1.96) *    
Mother’s religion
 Hindu    1.00    
 Muslim    1.03 (0.88, 1.21)    
 Christianity and others    1.35 (1.04, 1.75) *    
 Marital status       
 Currently married    1.00   1.00  
 Formerly married (divorced
/ separated / widow)
  1.73 (1.10, 2.72) *   1.61 (1.10, 1.27) *  
Mother’s education
 No education 1.00 1.00     
 Primary 1.16 (0.97, 1.37) 0.97 (0.70, 1.37)    1.08 (0.97, 1.20)  
 Secondary and above 1.24 (1.08, 1.42) * 1.31 (1.02, 1.67) *    1.15 (1.04, 1.27) *  
Power over earning
 Husband 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 woman 1.10 (0.93, 1.29) 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 1.00 (0.85, 1.17) 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) 1.15 (1.03, 1.29) * 1.09 (0.89, 1.33)
Power over Household purchases
 Husband 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 woman 1.11 (0.96, 1.29) 1.07 (0.89, 1.29) 1.09 (0.94, 1.26) 1.27 (0.97, 1.66) 1.13 (1.01, 1.25) * 1.16 (0.96, 1.40)
Birth order
 First-born 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 2nd-4th 1.27 (1.14, 1.42) *   1.23 (1.11, 1.36) *   1.23 (1.14, 1.33) * 1.26 (1.09, 1.46) *
 5 or more 1.45 (1.14, 1.86) *   1.14 (0.96, 1.37)   1.32 (1.16, 1.51) * 1.44 (1.13, 1.84) *
Type of delivery assistance
 Health professional   1.00 1.00   1.00  
 Traditional birth attendant   0.36 (0.16, 0.80) * 1.44 (1.24, 1.67) *   0.99 (0.89, 1.12)  
 Other untrained personnel   0.80 (0.62, 1.04) 1.45 (1.27, 1.65) *   1.24 (1.14, 1.35) *  
Antenatal clinic visits
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00   1.00  
 1–3 1.27 (1.02, 1.59) * 1.09 (0.76, 1.59) 1.09 (0.96, 1.23)   1.22 (1.10, 1.35) *  
 4+ 1.65 (1.31, 2.06) * 1.74 (1.27, 2.38) * 1.49 (1.30, 1.72) *   1.66 (1.48, 1.86) *  
Place of delivery
 Home 1.00   1.00    
 Health facility 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) *   1.27 (1.11, 1.44) *    
  1. Statistically significant (95% confidence intervals and P < 0.05*) study variables from multivariable models are shown. In the model of child factors, adjustments were made for maternal, household, health service and community factors. A similar approach was used for maternal, household, health service and community factors that adjusted for respective factors in multivariable models