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Table 4 The joint use of different types of smoking, Tehran, 2013–2015

From: Lifetime prevalence and correlates of smoking behavior in Iranian adults’ population; a cross-sectional study

Variables General population N (%)
Cigarette & Waterpipe smokinga
 Never cigarette or waterpipe 683 (64.75)
 Just cigarette 116 (11.00)
 Just waterpipe 159 (15.05)
 Both cigarette & waterpipe 97 (9.20)
Cigarette & second-handa
 Never cigarette or exposure to second-hand 529 (50.19)
 Just exposure to second-hand 312 (29.60)
 Just cigarette 129 (12.24)
 Both cigarette & exposure to second-hand 84 (7.97)
Waterpipe & second handa
 Never waterpipe or exposure to second-hand 513 (48.67)
 Just exposure to second-hand 289 (27.42)
 Just waterpipe 145 (13.76)
 Both waterpipe & exposure to second-hand 107 (10.15)
All three types of smokingb
 Never waterpipe, cigarette or exposure to second-hand 447 (42.41)
 Just waterpipe 87 (8.25)
 Just cigarette 71 (6.74)
 Just exposure to second-hand 236 (22.39)
 Waterpipe & cigarette 59 (5.60)
 Waterpipe & exposure to second-hand 71 (6.74)
 Exposure to second-hand & cigarette 48 (4.55)
 All 3 types of smoking 35 (3.32)
  1. aThese are combination of every possible 2 smoking habits
  2. b“All three type of smoking” is every possible combination of all 3 smoking habits