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Table 1 Characteristics of 143 healthy women and 134 women with cervical cancer

From: Determinants of access and utilization of cervical cancer treatment and palliative care services in Harare, Zimbabwe

Participant typeHealthy women N = 143Cervical cancer patients N = 134
Variables[N = 143] (%)[N = 134] (%)Treated [n = 92] (%)p-value*
Province of residence
 Manicaland17(12)14 (15)0.193
 Masvingo9(7)8 (9)0.176
 Midlands7(5)5 (6)0.871
 Matebeleland North1(1)1 (1)0.498
 Mashonaland Central5(4)4 (4)0.671
 Mashonaland East24(18)16 (17)0.871
 Mashonaland West5(4)3 (3)0.671
 Harare143 (100)66(49)41 (45)0.217
Residence
 Urban93 (65)74 (55)47 (51)0.154
 Urban_Low density31(21.7)3(2)3 (3)0.237
 Urban_High density31 (21.7)67(50)40 (44)0.025
 Urban_Medium density31 (21.7)4(3)4 (4)0.170
 Rural50 (35)60(45)45 (49)0.154
Age (years)Mean (35)Mean (52)Mean (53) 
 25–3478 (55)6(4)4 (4)0.914
 35–4440 (28)31(23)19 (21)0.313
 45–5422 (15)41(31)26 (28)0.642
 55 or more3 (2)56(42)43 (47)0.180
Ethnicity
 Shona133 (93)130(97)88 (96)0.170
 Ndebele6 (4)2(1)2 (2)0.336
 Other4 (3)2(2)2 (2)
Marital status
 Married/co-habiting98 (69)52(39)30 (33)0.029
 Never married17 (12)1(1)1 (1)0.498
 Widowed13 (9)59(44)44 (48)0.190
 Divorced or separated15 (10)22(16)17 (18)0.341
Religion
 Roman Catholic24 (17)34(25)24 (26)0.779
 Protestant22 (16)24(18)21 (23)0.028
 Pentecostal56 (39)34(25)21 (23)0.316
 Apostolic sect27 (19)34(25)24 (26)0.779
 Other14(9)8(7)2 (2)0.006
Education
 Primary19 (13)43(32)30 (33)0.849
 Secondary100 (70)75(56)50 (54)0.576
 Higher24 (17)6(5)5 (5)0.428
 None010(7)7 (8)0.924
Household head education
 Primary5 (3)16(12)12 (13)0.560
 Secondary74 (52)50(37)30 (33)0.096
 Higher54 (38)14(10)12 (13)0.146
 Not Applicable10 (7)5(4)37 (40)0.194
 None49(37)1 (1)0.017
Occupation
 Unemployed59 (41)90(67)60 (65)0.478
 Student7 (5)3(2)2 (2)0.336
 Professional14 (10)3(2)3 (3)0.620
 Police/Military/Security5 (4)12(9)9 (10)0.137
 Trucker/transport business1 (1)1(1)2 (2)
 General worker6(4)1(1)4 (5)0.318
 Self employed26 (18)5(4)10 (11)0.572
 Vendor25 (17)16(12)2 (2)0.940
Occupation of household head
 Unemployed9 (6)25(19)15 (16)0.301
 Farm worker1 (1)2(1)2 (2)0.336
 Professional52 (36)23(17)20 (22)0.038
 Police/Military/Security11 (8)5(4)5 (5)0.124
 Trucker/transport business15(10)1(1)00.137
 General worker5 (3)000.246
 Self employed31 (22)30(22)18 (20)0.498
 Vendor7 (5)1(1)1 (1)0.621
 Other1 (1)47(35)0
 Not applicable11 (8)031 (34)
Personal income (monthly) (US$)
 No income52 (36)77(57)52 (57)0.744
 < 20051 (35)32(24)23 (25)0.653
 200–40024 (17)19(14)13 (14)0.981
 430 or more16 (12)6(4)4 (4)0.914
Household income (monthly) (US$)
 No income52 (36)71(53)50 (55)0.640
 < 60055 (39)53(40)35 (38)0.597
 600–100016 (11)6(4)4 (4)0.914
 1200 or more20 (14)4(3)3 (3)0.718
Medical insurance/aid
 Yes50 (35)27(20)22 (24)0.108
 No93 (65)107(80)70 (76)
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest50 (35)7(5)6 (7)0.318
 Poorer22 (15)32(24)23 (25)0.653
 Middle19 (13)36(27)23 (25)0.471
 Richer30 (21)26(19)15 (16)0.179
 Richest22 (16)33(25)25 (27)0.311
Access/perception of access to treatment
 Yes114 (80)92 (69)
 No29 (20)42 (31) 
  1. Bold shows p value < =0.05 indicating statistical significance. *The p-value is for comparison of treated and untreated women with cervical cancer