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Table 1 Distribution of study variables overall

From: Association of living arrangements with depressive symptoms among older adults in China: a cross-sectional study

VariableTotal N = 6001Depressive Symptomsb N = 2157No Depressive Symptoms N = 3844p-valuea
n%n%n% 
Living arrangements
 Living with spouseliving with child      0.000
 Yesno2,47841.2979036.621,68843.91 
yes2,10935.1475635.051,35335.20 
 Nono67211.2028713.3138510.02 
yes74212.3632415.0241810.87 
Sociodemographic variables
 Gender       0.000
 male3,05057.0285839.782,19257.02 
female2,95142.981,29960.221,65242.98 
 Age       0.158
 60–694,01466.891,45367.362,56166.62 
70–791,66127.6860327.961,05827.52 
80-3265.431014.682255.85 
 Marriage       0.000
 married4,87681.251,66277.053,21483.61 
unmarried/widowed/divorced1,12518.7549522.9563016.39 
 Education       0.000
 Illiterate1,86131.0182338.151,03827.00 
Primary school2,84347.381,04048.221,80346.90 
Middle school86014.332129.8364816.86 
High school or above4377.28823.803559.24 
 Area       0.000
 rural4,79679.921,86886.602,92876.17 
urban1,20520.0828913.4091623.83 
Health behavior
 Smoking       0.000
 no3,28354.711,29159.851,99251.82 
quit77612.9323911.0853713.97 
now1,94232.3662729.071,31534.21 
 Drinking       0.000
 no1,59426.5646421.511,13029.40 
seldom4437.381577.282867.44 
often3,96466.061,53671.212,42863.16 
 Phsical activity      0.000
 no2,95349.211,16053.781,79346.64 
yes3,04850.7999746.222,05153.36 
Health condition
 BMIc       0.000
 underweight4727.8721810.112546.61 
normal3,67361.211,33461.852,33960.85 
overweight1,57126.1850623.461,06527.71 
obse2854.75994.591864.84 
 ADL disabilityd      0.000
 independent5,56992.801,88687.443,68395.81 
dependent4327.2027112.561614.19 
 Self-reported health      0.000
 good1,67527.9128413.171,39136.19 
poor4,32672.091,87386.832,45363.81 
 Chronic diseases      0.000
 01,42423.7336316.831,06127.60 
11,66227.7054925.451,11328.95 
21,34022.3349522.9584521.98 
≥31,57526.2575034.7782521.46 
  1. aThe chi-square test was used for calculating the P value, to evaluates the association between depressive symptoms and exposure factors, depressive symptoms and covariates
  2. bDepressive symptom, based on CES-D10 scores of 10-item Short-Form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression
  3. cBMI, body mass index
  4. dADL disability, activities of daily living disable