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Table 1 Child and maternal characteristics of 4-year-old offspring by child obesity status, n = 766

From: Overall gestational weight gain mediates the relationship between maternal and child obesity

Variable Normal or Underweight Overweight or Obese p-valueb
n (%) 581 (76) 185 (24)  
Child Characteristics
 Follow-up time (months)a 63.5 (12.3) 62.2 (12.8) 0.295
 BMI z-scorea −0.03 (0.70) 1.54 (0.40) <  0.001
 Males, n (%) 318 (53) 113 (54) 0.821
 Birth weight (g)a 3165 (657) 3240 (615) 0.121
Maternal Characteristics
 Age at delivery (yrs)a 28.7 (6.2) 28.9 (6.3) 0.970
Education 0.013
 Less than high school 109 (20) 50 (28)  
 High school Diploma/GED 112 (21) 44 (24)  
 Some College 122 (23) 42 (23)  
 College Degree 195 (36) 45 (25)  
Race 0.008
 Black 257 (47) 87 (47)  
 White 185 (34) 50 (27)  
 Hispanic 78 (14) 44 (24)  
 Other 26 (5) 4 (2)  
Body Mass Index (BMI)a 27.2 (7.21) 30.9 (8.4) <  0.001
BMI Status <  0.001
 Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 266 (49) 56 (30)  
 Overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) 134 (25) 47 (25)  
 Obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) 146 (27) 82 (44)  
Gestational Weight Gain 0.018
 Less than Adequate 107 (20) 35 (19)  
 Adequate 132 (24) 29 (16)  
 Excessive 291 (53) 117 (63)  
Smoked during Pregnancy 117 (22) 47 (26) 0.205
Gestational Diabetes 39 (8) 10 (6) 0.527
Cesarean Section 196 (36) 80 (43) 0.114
Gestational Age (weeks)a 270 (17) 270 (13) 0.722
Parity 0.357
 0 129 (36) 58 (32)  
 1 179 (34) 61 (33)  
 2 100 (19) 35 (19)  
 ≥ 3 62 (11) 30 (16)  
Ever Breastfed 440 (82) 150 (82) 0.999
  1. Footnotes: a Continuous variable; mean and standard deviation is presented
  2. b p-values are based on t-tests for continuous and Chi-square tests for categorical variables
  3. Child BMI categories from BMI z-scores: Underweight (z < 5th percentile), Normal (5th ≤ z < 85th percentile), Overweight (85 ≤ z < 95th percentile), Obese (z ≥ 95th percentile)