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Table 7 Result of log-linear regression model on cost of hospitalization in India, Bihar and Tamil Nadu

From: Do poor people in the poorer states pay more for healthcare in India?

Parameters Model-1 (India) Model-2 (Bihar) Model-3 (Tamil Nadu)
  Coef. 95% CI Coef. 95% CI Coef. 95% CI
Resident
Rural®
Urban 0.001 (−0.02, 0.03) 0.092(−0.02, 0.21) 0.041(− 0.04, 0.13)
Poverty and hospitalization
Non-poor & using private health centers®    
Poor & using public health centers −0.710***(− 0.75, − 0.67) −0.683***(− 0.83, − 0.54) −0.468**(− 0.85, − 0.09)
Poor & using private health centers −0.197***(− 0.23, − 0.17 −0.280***(− 0.40, − 0.16) − 0.245***(− 0.38, − 0.11)
Non-poor & using public health centers −0.557***(− 0.59, − 0.52) −0.473***(− 0.60, − 0.34) −0.294(− 0.67, 0.08)
Age
15–59®
<=14 −0.075***(− 0.11, − 0.04) − 0.015(− 0.15, 0.12) 0.056(− 0.08, 0.19)
60+ 0.043**(0.01, 0.07) 0.080(− 0.07, 0.23) − 0.029(− 0.13, 0.07)
Sex
Male®
Female − 0.151***(− 0.17, − 0.13) −0.256***(− 0.36, − 0.15) −0.082(− 0.17, 0.00)
Religion
Hindu®
Muslim −0.049**(− 0.08, − 0.01) −0.084(− 0.23, 0.07) 0.054(− 0.09, 0.20)
Others 0.113***(0.07, 0.16) 0.189(− 0.23, 0.60) − 0.020(− 0.18, 0.14)
Caste
SC/ST®
OBC/Other 0.083***(0.06, 0.11) 0.235(0.12, 0.35) 0.021(− 0.08, 0.12)
Surgery
Not received®
Free/partly free 0.449***(0.41, 0.49) 0.234**(0.04, 0.43) 0.469***(0.33, 0.61)
On payment 0.846***(0.82, 0.87) 0.696***(0.59, 0.80) 0.924***(0.83, 1.02)
Medicine
Not received®
Free/partly free −0.011(− 0.20, 0.18) 0.320(− 0.23, 0.87) 0.013(− 0.84, 0.87)
On payment 0.793***(0.60, 0.98) 0.797**(0.25, 1.34) 1.386**(0.49, 2.28)
X-ray
Not received®
Free/partly free 0.365***(0.32, 0.41) 0.445(0.26, 0.63) 0.270(0.14, 0.40)
On payment 0.607***(0.58, 0.63) 0.550***(0.44, 0.66) 0.684***(0.57, 0.80)
Diagnostic
Not received®
Free/partly free 0.133***(0.09, 0.18) 0.041(− 0.12, 0.21) 0.118(− 0.06, 0.30)
On payment 0.632***(0.60, 0.66) 0.569***(0.45, 0.69) 0.529***(0.38, 0.68)
Insurance
No health insurance®
Not reimbursed 0.053***(0.03, 0.08) −0.021(− 0.12, 0.08) 0.080(−0.08, 0.24)
Reimbursed 0.515***(0.46, 0.57) 0.485**(0.13, 0.84) 0.427***(0.19, 0.66)
Diseases
Cancer®
Bone disease −0.843***(− 0.96,-0.73) −1.360***(−1.85, − 0.87) − 0.409(− 0.82, 0.00)
Diabetes − 0.875***(− 1.00, − 0.75) −1.629***(− 2.28, − 0.98) − 0.402(− 0.82, 0.01)
Fever −1.098***(− 1.20, − 0.99) −1.804***(− 2.30, − 1.31) − 0.667**(− 1.06, − 0.27)
High Blood Pressure −1.086***(− 1.21, − 0.96) −1.588***(− 2.21, − 0.97) − 0.555**(− 1.08, − 0.03)
Accident −0.899***(− 1.00, − 0.80) −1.606***(− 2.07, − 1.15) − 0.426**(− 0.82, − 0.04)
Jaundice −0.681***(− 0.80, − 0.56) − 1.472***(− 2.03, − 0.92) 0.120(− 0.34, 0.58)
Respiratory Diseases −0.960***(− 1.07, − 0.85) −1.592***(− 2.10, − 1.09) − 0.487**(− 0.91, − 0.06)
Heart Diseases −0.446(− 0.55, − 0.34) −0.913***(− 1.42, 0.41) 0.043(− 0.36, 0.45)
Eye Diseases − 1.664***(− 1.55, − 2.062) − 2.062***(− 2.54, − 1.58) −1.440***(− 1.83, − 1.05)
Tuberculosis −0.683***(− 0.83, − 0.56) −1.685***(− 2.22, − 1.16) − 0.400(− 1.02, 0.22)
Blood disease − 0.754***(− 0.88, − 0.62) −1.158***(− 1.67, − 0.64) − 0.328(− 0.84, 0.18)
Neurological −0.609***(− 0.72, − 0.50) −1.124***(− 1.63, − 0.62) − 0.120(− 0.55, 0.31)
Others −0.982***(− 1.08, − 0.88) −1.641***(− 2.09, − 1.19) − 0.293(− 0.68, 0.09)
Constant 8.446***(8.23, 8.66) 8.977***(8.25, 9.71) 7.390***(6.39, 8.39)
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05.® Reference category. CI Confidence Interval