Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants stratified by depression status

From: Severity of depression, anxious distress and the risk of type 2 diabetes – a population-based cohort study in Sweden

Variables Categories All Depressed Not depressed p-values
N (9936) N (1425) N (8511)  
n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Age at baseline Mean (SD) 41.1 (12.4) 39.1 (11.9) 41.4 (12.5) <.0001
Age at baseline < 50 years 6880 (69.2) 1070 (75.1) 5810 (68.3) <.0001
≥50 years 3056 (30.8) 355 (24.9) 2701 (31.7)  
T2DM at follow upa No 9573 (96.4) 1364 (95.7) 8209 (96.5) 0.1726
Yes 363 (3.7) 61 (4.3) 302 (3.6)  
Age at T2DM onsetb Mean (SD) 61.1 (9.8) 57.3 (9.6) 61.8 (9.6) <.0001
Age at T2DM onsetb < 50 years 46 (12.7) 13 (21.3) 33 (10.9) <.0001
≥50 years 317 (87.3) 48 (78.7) 269 (89.1)  
Sex Men 4395 (44.2) 434 (30.5) 3961 (46.5) <.0001
Women 5541 (55.8) 991 (69.5) 4550 (53.5)  
Socioeconomic position Unskilled and semi-skilled workers 1148 (11.55) 227 (15.93) 921 (10.82) <.0001
Skilled workers 644 (6.48) 92 (6.46) 552 (6.49)  
Assistant non-manual workers 1398 (14.07) 211 (14.81) 1187 (13.95)  
Students 537 (5.40) 88 (6.18) 449 (5.28)  
Retired 368 (3.70) 108 (7.58) 260 (3.05)  
Self-employed (other than professional) 691 (6.95) 74 (5.19) 617 (7.25)  
High and intermediate level salaried employee 4567 (45.96) 477 (33.47) 4090 (48.06)  
Missing 583 (5.87) 148 (10.39) 435 (5.11)  
BMI (kg/m2) Mean (SD) 24.2 (3.7) 24.1 (4.1) 24.3 (3.7) 0.1552
BMI Normal (18.50–24.99) 6172 (62.1) 875 (61.4) 5297 (62.2) 0.0008
Underweight (< 18.50) 202 (2.0) 44 (3.1) 158 (1.9)  
Overweight (25.00–29.99) 2799 (28.2) 371 (26.0) 2428 (28.5)  
Obese (≥30.00) 644 (6.5) 114 (8.0) 530 (6.2)  
Missing 119 (1.2) 21 (1.5) 98 (1.2)  
Physical activityc Yes 4416 (44.4) 533 (37.4) 3883 (45.6) <.0001
No 3780 (38.0) 661 (46.4) 3119 (36.7)  
Missing 1740 (17.5) 231 (16.2) 1509 (17.7)  
Smoking Regular smoker 1230 (12.4) 287 (20.1) 943 (11.1) <.0001
Occasional smoker 870 (8.8) 145 (10.2) 725 (8.5)  
Ex-smoker 2380 (24.0) 310 (21.8) 2070 (24.3)  
Never smoker 3686 (37.1) 452 (31.7) 3234 (38.0)  
Missing 1770 (17.8) 231 (16.2) 1539 (18.1)  
Hazardous alcohol used Yes 2530 (25.5) 527 (37.0) 2003 (23.5) <.0001
No 7360 (74.1) 888 (62.3) 6472 (76.0)  
Missing 46 (0.5) 10 (0.7) 36 (0.4)  
Severity of depression No   8511 (85.7)   
Mild   522 (5.3)   
Moderate   345 (3.5)   
Severe   558 (5.6)   
Anxious distress symptoms No 7855 (79.1) 384 (27.0) 7471 (87.8) <.0001
Mild 1392 (14.0) 499 (35.0) 893 (10.5)  
Moderate/severe 684 (6.9) 542 (38.0) 142 (1.7)  
Missing 5 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.1)  
  1. Values expressed as mean and standard deviation (SD) for continues variables or number and percentage (%) of subjects in groups
  2. BMI body mass index, T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  3. aFirst record of T2DM using ICD-10 code (E11) in the National Patient Register more than one year after responding to the questionnaire, or anti diabetic drugs dispensation (ATC code A10) in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registers from 1 January 2006, or T2DM recorded in the Cause of Death Register using ICD-10 code (E11)
  4. bOnly persons with T2DM
  5. cDefined as exercise regularly 2–3 times a week
  6. dAssessed using AUDIT (The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) using cut-off points ≥ 8 for men and ≥ 6 for women (15, 16)