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Table 4 Summary of papers included: Quantitative and mixed methods studies

From: Support for people who use Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: A Systematic Scoping Review into what they want and what they access

First author, year & reference Country Participants defined, (age range/mean), gender No. of participants Type of data # Sources, potential bias & limitations Quality review~
Parkinson (2006) [5] USA AAS users, 494 men 6 women 500 Quantitative: web-based questionnaire Web-based, self-selected, self-report **
Cohen (2007) [48] US AAS users (Non-medical), men 1955 Quantitative: web-based survey Online population ***
Larance (2008) [49] Australia IPED users, men 60 #Quantitative: cross -sectional structured Interviews Self-selecting sample, purposive recruitment strategies, self-reports ***
Al-Falasi (2009) [50] UAE AAS users (34 male) and non-AAS users (129 male & female), age range not specific 154 Quantitative: Self-administered questionnaire Self-report, small sample size, selective bias **
Bojsen-Møller (2010) [51] Denmark General public (incl AAS users), (not given for AAS queries subset), 284 men, 40 women 374 Quantitative: Anti-Doping Hotline Enquires: web and phone queries (subset AAS use) Self-selected, missing data for AAS users’ subset **
Hope (2013) [52] England & Wales (UK) Injectors of IPED (NSPs), (n = 347 mean = 28 [not all gave age]), men 395 Quantitative: unlinked-anonymous cross-sectional biobehavioural survey (oral fluid sample) NSPs as settings ***
Hope (2013) [19] England & Wales (UK) Injectors of IPED (NSPs), (n = 319, mean: 28 [not all gave age]), men 366 Quantitative: unlinked-anonymous cross-sectional biobehavioural survey (oral fluid sample) same study as above ***
van Beek (2015) [53] Australia Injectors of IPED (NSPs), (mean = 32.6), men 103 Quantitative: Self-administered survey Recruited from 2 public healthcare providers ***
Jacka (2017) [54] Australia Injectors of IPED, (median 27), men 100000 occasions Queensland NSP Minimum dataset NSPs as settings ***
Rowe (2017) [8] Australia Injectors of IPED, (mean = 28.8), men 605 Quantitative: Self-administered questionnaire NSPs as settings ***
Zahnow (2017) [55] Global AAS users, 253 men & 59 women (no exact No. after exclusion criteria applied) 195 AAS users with adverse effects Quantitative: Sub-section of global drug survey – online Self-nominating, online only **
Dennington (2008) [34] Australia IPED users, 61 men, 1 woman, 7 trans, 24, key informants 69 (+ 24) #Mixed Methods: semi-structured interviews collecting quantitative and qualitative data Report: not peer reviewed. Data sets not integrated **
  1. ~ Quality Review: Davids and Roman’s [47] Quantitative Review Methodology. Appraisal Score: *** 67–100% & **34–66% score. #where practicable data analysed from studies which included dealers or professional services providers, only findings from AAS users have been included