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Table 3 Results of the Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVA analysis

From: Free school meals as an approach to reduce health inequalities among 10–12- year-old Norwegian children

Children’s outcomes from T0 – T1
Multivariate      Time x Group  
F p
2.409 0.069
Univariate   n T0 T1 Time x Group Time x Group x Gender Time x Group x SES  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F p F p F p   
 Healthy food score IG 52 6.72 ± 2.52 8.28 ± 2.73 4.184 0.043 0.049 0.825 1.183 0.279   
CG 102 7.28 ± 2.35 7.97 ± 2.23         
 BMI z-score (IOTF-based) IG 52 0.59 ± 1.10 0.55 ± 1.15 1.950 0.165 0.342 0.560 0.072 0.789   
CG 102 0.64 ± 0.98 0.63 ± 0.96         
 Waist circumference IG 52 68.42 ± 9.42 68.77 ± 9.28 2.618 0.108 3.293 0.072 0.216 0.643   
CG 102 67.18 ± 8.51 68.34 ± 8.72         
Children’s outcomes from T0 – T2
Multivariate      Time x Group       
      F P       
     8.452 < 0.001       
Univariate   n T0 T2 Time x Group Time x Group x Gender Time x Group x SES  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F p F p F p   
 Healthy food score IG 49 6.73 ± 2.54 9.00 ± 1.59 10.941 0.001 0.105 0.747 6.228 0.014   
CG 101 7.29 ± 2.36 8.24 ± 2.14         
 BMI z-score (IOTF-based) IG 49 0.60 ± 1.11 0.64 ± 1.07 10.007 0.002 1.410 0.237 1.465 0.228   
CG 101 0.64 ± 0.98 0.50 ± 0.96         
 Waist circumference IG 49 68.44 ± 9.52 70.11 ± 9.16 0.608 0.437 0.096 0.757 0.247 0.620   
CG 101 67.27 ± 8.51 69.35 ± 8.78         
Children’s outcomes from T1 – T2         
Multivariate      Time x Group Time x Group    
      F p    
      8.209 < 0.001    
Univariate   n T1 T2 Time x Group Time x Group x Gender Time x Group x SES  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F p F p F p   
 Healthy food score IG 49 8.35 ± 2.71 9.00 ± 1.59 0.848 0.359 0.256 0.614 1.552 0.215   
CG 101 7.96 ± 2.24 8.24 ± 2.14         
 BMI z-score IG 49 0.55 ± 1.16 0.64 ± 1.07 22.245 < 0.001 0.884 0.349 1.505 0.222   
CG 101 0.64 ± 0.96 0.50 ± 0.96         
 Waist circumference IG 49 68.81 ± 9.37 70.11 ± 9.16 0.746 0.389 3.077 0.082 0.000 0.998   
CG 101 68.41 ± 8.74 69.35 ± 8.78         
  1. IG intervention group, CG control group, T0 baseline, T1 follow up1, T2 = follow up2; p < 0.05 indicated in bold