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Table 4 Intervention effects on infant and young child feeding, infection control, care-seeking practices, and uptake of services

From: Effects of participatory learning and action with women’s groups, counselling through home visits and crèches on undernutrition among children under three years in eastern India: a quasi-experimental study

Survey Baseline Endline Effect of PLA and homevisits vs control
Adjusted OR (95% CI) a
p Effect of crèches, PLA and home visits vs control
Adjusted OR (95% CI) a
p
Areas 1 2 3 1 2 3     
Infant And Young Child Feeding Practices, n (%)
 Children 0-24 months 836 759 854 750 862 782     
  Initiation of breastfeeding with 1 h of birth 297 (35.5) 257 (33.9) 324 (37.9) 196 (26.1) 361 (41.9) 370 (47.3) 3.40 (2.41-4.79) < 0.001 3.80 (2.68-5.38) < 0.001
 Children 12-16 months 166 140 162 136 161 157     
  Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 158 (95.2) 135 (96.4) 145 (89.5) 133 (97.8) 150 (93.2) 156 (99.4) 0.08 (0.00-1.01) 0.050 3.40 (0.18-87.5) 0.378
 Children 6-9 months 96 99 93 99 129 121     
  Timely introduction of semi-solid and solid foods 63 (65.6) 65 (65.7) 66 (71.0) 68 (68.7) 104 (80.6) 105 (86.8) 1.69 (0.64-4.48) 0.292 2.43 (0.86-6.85) 0.093
  Minimum meal frequency (breastfed children, twice a day) 55 (57.3) 55 (55.6) 51 (54.8) 59 (59.7) 72 (55.8) 67 (55.4) 0.70 (0.20-1.73) 0.450 0.93 (0.38-2.29) 0.874
  Minimum acceptable diet 20 (20.8) 13 (13.3) 25 (26.9) 8 (8.1) 22 (17.0) 38 (31.4) 4.30 (1.26-16.21) 0.019 4.02 (1.30-12.47) 0.016
 Children 6-24 months 714 650 756 636 735 684     
  Minimum dietary diversity (≥4 food groups) 300 (42.0) 218 (33.5) 352 (46.6) 248 (39.0) 309 (42.0) 474 (69.3) 1.85 (1.31-2.62) < 0.001 3.67 (2.59-5.21) < 0.001
  Consumption of iron rich foods 245 (34.3) 116 (17.8) 185 (24.5) 193 (30.3) 187 (25.4) 357 (52.2) 2.22 (1.52-3.23) < 0.001 5.18 (3.64-7.58) < 0.001
 Children 9-24 months 618 551 663 537 606 563     
  Minimum meal frequency (breastfed children (three times a day) 402 (65.0) 344 (62.4) 288 (43.4) 371 (69.1) 374 (61.7) 327 (58.1) 0.70 (0.48-1.02) 0.063 1.41 (0.98-2.04) 0.062
  Minimum acceptable diet 205 (33.2) 148 (26.9) 161 (24.3) 179 (33.3) 204 (33.7) 228 (40.5) 1.94 (0.91-1.97) 0.135 2.18 (1.50-3.19) < 0.001
Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Practices, n (%)
 Children 0-36 months 1263 1245 1360 1130 1256 1177     
  Water treatment, physical or chemical 288 (22.8) 277 (22.2) 377 (27.7) 326 (28.8) 401 (31.9) 497 (42.2) 1.33 (0.95-1.86) 0.093 1.86 (1.33-2.61) < 0.001
  Handwashing with soap after all three key eventsa 172 (13.6) 48 (3.9) 87 (6.4) 137 (12.1) 245 (19.5) 238 (20.2) 13.1 (8.17-21.2) < 0.001 8.34 (5.40-12.9) < 0.001
Preventive Health Practices, Morbidity And Care-Seeking, n (%)
 Children 0-36 months 1263 1245 1360 1130 1256 1177     
  Household owns a bed net 955 (75.6) 745 (59.8) 816 (60.0) 754 (66.7) 886 (70.5) 841 (71.5) 3.95 (2.84-5.48) < 0.001 4.71 (3.40-6.51) < 0.001
  Child slept under a bed net last night (among those in households with a net) 923 (96.7) 513 (68.9) 604 (74.0) 625 (82.9) 790 (89.2) 718 (85.4) 29.1 (16.9.0-50.1) < 0.001 12.5 (7.29-21.48) < 0.001
  Vitamin A dose received in last 6 months 687 (54.4) 595 (47.8) 888 (65.3) 414 (36.6) 584 (46.5) 527 (44.8) 2.55 (1.96-3.33) < 0.001 1.15 (0.88-1.49) 0.307
  Deworming in last 6 months 626 (49.6) 468 (37.6) 737 (54.2) 361 (32.0) 471 (37.5) 427 (36.3) 2.38 (1.83-3.11) < 0.001 1.18 (0.91-1.54) 0.205
  Diarrhoea in last 14 days 168 (13.3) 166 (13.3) 266 (19.6) 126 (11.2) 165 (13.1) 228 (19.4) 1.30 (0.91-1.86) 0.151 1.22 (0.87-1.72) 0.238
  Same or more breastmilk given during diarrhea 84 (50.0) 107 (64.5) 185 (69.5) 105 (83.3) 125 (75.8) 175 (76.7) 0.30 (0.13-0.66) 0.003 0.30 (0.14-0.64) 0.002
  Same or more food given during diarrhea 72 (42.9) 80 (48.2) 144 (54.1) 75 (59.5) 101 (61.2) 133 (58.3) 0.72 (0.34-1.53) 0.402 0.88 (0.44-1.74) 0.712
  Advice sought from ANM, AWW or ASHA for diarrhea 118 (70.2) 68 (41.0) 117 (44.0) 73 (57.9) 118 (71.5) 178 (78.1) 6.18 (2.92-13.1) < 0.001 9.82 (4.82-20.0) < 0.001
  ORS used during diarrhea 83 (49.4) 66 (39.8) 103 (38.7) 46 (36.5) 98 (59.4) 129 (56.6) 3.27 (1.52-7.04) 0.002 4.92 (2.39-10.1) < 0.001
  Fever or cough in last 14 days 215 (17.0) 249 (20.0) 407 (29.9) 193 (17.1) 262 (20.9) 428 (36.4) 1.09 (0.79-1.49) 0.595 1.46 (1.08-1.97) 0.013
  Same or more breastmilk given in case of fever or cough 135 (62.8) 173 (69.5) 256 (62.9) 152 (78.8) 187 (71.4) 261 (61.0) 0.42 (0.22-0.81) 0.001 0.33 (0.18-0.61) < 0.001
  Same or more food given in case of fever of cough 112 (52.1) 137 (55.0) 172 (42.3) 89 (46.1) 155 (59.2) 176 (41.1) 1.31 (0.73-2.35) 0.363 1.20 (0.71-2.04) 0.488
  Advice sought for fever or cough 166 (77.2) 79 (31.7) 199 (48.9) 107 (55.4) 165 (63.0) 240 (56.1) 15.5 (8.12-29.69) < 0.001 4.44 (2.51-7.84) < 0.001
 Children 12-24 months 487 427 533 432 490 456     
  Measles immunisation received 415 (85.2) 374 (87.6) 422 (79.2) 315 (72.9) 421 (85.9) 382 (83.8) 1.95 (1.08-3.51) 0.027 3.16 (1.77-5.63) < 0.001
Uptake Of Nutrition Services, n (%)
 Children 0-36 months 1263 1245 1360 1130 1256 1177     
  Regular food received from AWW in last 3 months 1030 (75.7) 946 (76.0) 954 (75.5) 897 (79.4) 854 (68.0) 913 (77.6) 0.32 (0.24-0.45) < 0.001 0.67 (0.48-0.91) 0.012
  Child weighed by AWW at least once in the last 3 months 811 (64.2) 901 (72.4) 937 (68.9) 662 (58.6) 809 (64.4) 623 (52.9) 0.80 (0.61-1.04) 0.093 0.66 (0.50-0.86) 0.002
 Children 6-36 months 1092 1081 1215 956 1073 1048     
  Children aged 6-36 months with SAM (WHZ < -3SD) 61 (5.6) 98 (9.1) 78 (6.4) 91 (9.5) 77 (7.2) 80 (7.6) 0.47 (0.29-0.76) 0.002 0.72 (0.44-1.16) 0.177
  Children aged 6-36 months with SAM referred to Nutrition Rehabilitation Centre 1 (1.6) 25 (25.5) 11 (14.1) 8 (8.8) 6 (7.8) 15 (18.8) 0.06 (0.005-0.75) 0.029 0.24 (0.02-2.98) 0.269
  1. aAdjusted for baseline differences in anthropometry, tribal/caste status (categorical), ownership of MNREGA card (binary), any maternal education (binary), asset quintile (categorical), district (categorical, fixed effect) and clustering (random effect)