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Table 1 Baseline data

From: Customized exercise programs implemented by physical therapists improve exercise-related self-efficacy and promote behavioral changes in elderly individuals without regular exercise: a randomized controlled trial

  CEP (n = 26) Control (n = 24) p-value
Age (years) 69.1 ± 2.9 68.9 ± 2.2 0.781
Gender (male/female) 11 / 15 9 / 15 0.729
Height (cm) 158.4 ± 8.2 158.8 ± 8.9 0.876
Weight (kg) 58.7 ± 11.9 55.6 ± 8.6 0.309
BMI (kg/m2) 23.2 ± 3.2 22.0 ± 2.2 0.120
Employed (%) 42.3 41.7 0.963
Comorbidities
 Hypertension (%) 42.3 12.5 0.019
 Dyslipidemia (%) 34.6 25.0 0.459
 Diabetes (%) 11.5 12.5 0.917
Musculoskeletal diseases
 Osteoarthritis of the knee (%) 11.5 8.3 0.706
 Osteoarthritis of the hip (%) 0.0 0.0 1.000
 Osteoporosis (%) 15.4 12.5 0.769
 Lumbar spinal stenosis (%) 15.4 12.5 0.769
 VAS for knee pain (mm) 0.0 (0.0–10.0) 0.0 (0.0–13.8) 0.867
 VAS for back pain (mm) 0.0 (0.0–45.0) 0.0 (0.0–41.5) 0.812
 Grip strength (kg) 30.4 ± 9.0 30.2 ± 8.9 0.947
 Walking velocity (m/sec) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2 0.119
 YAM (%) 76.7 ± 15.9 76.1 ± 11.6 0.895
 Self-efficacy for exercise 11.0 (9.0–13.3) 13.0 (12.0–15.8) 0.064
 Stage of change for exercise behavior 2.0 (2.0–2.0) 2.0 (2.0–2.8) 0.578
  1. Data are presented as means ± SD or medians (interquartile range)
  2. BMI Body mass index, CEP Customized exercise program, VAS Visual analogue scale, YAM Young adult mean