Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of, reasons for and associations with infectious illness presenteeism

From: A systematic review of infectious illness Presenteeism: prevalence, reasons and risk factors

Referencequality Prevalence of presenteeism of those with infectious illness Reasons for presenteeism Factors tested for associations with presenteeism (significant associations in bold*)
Ablah 2008a,b [19] 61% (to date)   Gender (male), age (younger), ILI presenteeism intention (yes), occupation (HCWs and health educators)
Bhadelia 2013a,b[20] 65% (past 12 months)   Occupation
Bracewell 2010b,c [21] 48.7% (past 12 months) 1. Did not want to increase workload of others; 2. No replacement available; 3. Increased burden of work once returned; 4. Not sick enough; 5. Pressure from work; 6. Did not want to cancel clinics; 7. Unwell during days off; 8. Could not cancel clinics; 9. Financial stressors; 10. No more sick leave/ sick days; 11. Concerns about job security Gender, age, health, dependents, amount of work left undone if absent, hours worked, job satisfaction, occupation (physician)
Carroll 2016a[22]   1. Nursery fees paid in advance; 2. Alternative child care is an extra cost; 3. Colleagues perceptions if absent from work; 4. Family/ friends are often working; 5. Nursery payment reliant on work income); 6. No guidance to say child cannot be sent into nursery with RTI; 7. No alternative care options  
CDC 2004b,c[23] 82.7% (past 5 months)   
Chambers 2017c[24] 75% (past 12 months)   Gender (female), age (younger), number of presenteeism days, length of time in profession, host of district health board
Chiu 2017a[25] 41.4% (during influenza season) 1. Could still perform job duties; 2. Not feeling bad enough to miss work; 3. Did not think it was contagious; 4. Professional obligation to co-workers; 5. Difficult to find cover; 6. Not afford to lose pay; Employer expects staff to work while ill; 7. Risk of being penalised by employer; 8. Professional obligation to patients; 9. Did not have paid sick leave; 10. No one in workplace said to stay home; 11. Missed too much work already this year Age, patient type, professional/clinical status, length of time in job, occupation (physician, pharmacist), work setting (hospital), vaccinated during influenza season (yes)
de Perio 2014c[26] 77% (since start of school year) 1. Professional obligation to students; 2. Did not think it was contagious; Difficult to get or prepare for a substitute; 3. Might be penalized by employer; 4. Professional obligation to co-workers Gender, age, household with children, occupation, workplace, employment status,asthma, diabetes, healthy immune system
Gudgeon 2009a,b,c[27] 48–60% depending on occupation (nr) Students: 1. Cared about opinions and impressions of others; 2. Doctors note is required but is often difficult to obtain. Physicians/Residents: 1. Concern over delivery of patient care; 2. Patient impact of rescheduling procedures Occupation (physician)
Jena 2012a,b[28] 51% (past 12 months) 1. Did not want to force colleagues to cover; 2. Responsible for patients’ care; 3. Colleagues would think they were “weak”; 4. Pressured to repay colleagues for coverage Gender, training year
Juszczyk 2018 [29] 35% (average for all RTI infections, in a period of 14 months)   
Kobayashi 2016[30] 53.7% (during 3-month period)   
LaVela 2007a,b,c[31] 86% (during influenza season)   Perceptions of institutional control measures (no droplet precautions, no restriction of staff movement, contact between ill patients and other patients not restricted, no infection control measures), influenza and vaccine related behaviour
Martinez 2012a,b,c[32] 8.1 days a year attended work with infection (nr)   
Mitchell 2017a,b,c[33] 59.1% (past 2 months) 97% (during study period)   Training year
Mossad 2017a,b,c[34] 92% (during influenza season)   Gender (female), age (younger), patient type
Perkin 2003a,b study 1 [18] 84.9% (1993, past 6 months) 1. Consultant pressure; 2. Colleagues must do extra work; 3. Did not influence capacity to work; 4. No risk of transmission  
Perkin 2003a,b study 2 [18] 63.2% (2001, past 6 months) 1. Consultant pressure; 2. Colleagues must do extra work; 3. Did not influence capacity to work; 4. No risk of transmission  
Rebmann 2016a,b,c [35] 42.1% (past 3 years) 1. Care provider cleared them for work; 2. Illness not severe; 3. No one to cover the work; 4. Risk falling behind; 5. Feel pressured by colleagues or supervisors; 6. No paid sick leave; 7. Worried about getting fired  
Rosvold 2001 [36] 52.8% (past 12 months)   
Rousculp 2010a[37] 88.6% (past 6 months)   Sick leave policy (can’t work from home)
Tan 2014c[38] 49% (past 12 months)   
Veale 2016a,b,c[39] 37% (during a clerkship rotation ~ 6 weeks) 1. Must make up the time; 2. Fear of poor evaluation; 3. Sickness not severe; 4. Need the experience; 5. No one to cover; 6. Observed others working while ill; 7. Did not think it was infectious; 8. Did not want to get a doctors’ note; 9. Not sure if should stay home/right thing to do; 10. Pressure from physicians  
Whysall 2018a,b,c [40] 59% (past 12 months)   
  1. Note: HCWs health care workers, ILI influenza-like-illness, RTI respiratory tract infection
  2. a = high risk of sampling bias, b = high risk of non-representation, c = high risk of non-response bias
  3. * p < .05