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Table 3 Multilevel latent growth curve analyses123

From: “Happiness in the air?” the effects of air pollution on adolescent happiness

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Initial level of happiness Change of happiness Initial level of happiness Change of happiness Initial level of happiness Change of happiness
PM2.5 −.01(.006)* −.003(.004)     
PM10    −.01(.003)** −.001(.002)   
NO2      −.01(.01)* −.003(.004)
% of college graduates .001(.002) −.001(.001) −.001(.002) −.001(.001) .002(.002) −.001(.001)
Population densitya -†
Mutualityb −.09(.10) −.19(.11)† −.03(.10)
Male .02(.03) .04(.02)* .02(.03) −.04(.02)* .02(.03) −.04(.02)*
Family incomea   
Non-intact familyb −.06(.04) −.06(.04) −.06(.04)
Wave 1 Class rank .02(.01) .02(.01) .02(.01) .02(.01) .02(.01) .02(.01)
Wave 1 Negative life event −.02(.008)* .002(.004) −.02(.008)* .002(.004) −.02(.008)* .002(.004)
Wave 1 Low family cohesion −.25(.03)** .09(.02)** −.25(.03)** .09(.02)** −.25(.03)** .09(.02)**
Wave 1 Self-esteem .04(.004)** −.01(.003)** .04(.004)** −.01(.003)** .04(.004)** −.01(.003)**
Wave 1 Negative emotion −.25(.02)** .07(.01)** −.25(.02)** .07(.01)** −.25(.02)** .07(.01)**
Wave 1 Low peer support −.17(.03)** .03(.02)† −.17(.03)** .03(.02)† −.17(.03)** .03(.02)†
Wave 1 deviance .01(.01) −.001(.009) .01(.01) −.001(.009) .01(.01) −.001(.009)
  1. n1 = 2538; n2 = 40
  2. p < .1;*p < .05; **p < .01
  3. 1The presented number is the estimated coefficient and standard error is in the parentheses
  4. 2Model fit for each of the four models is acceptable, which may be obtained from the first author upon the request
  5. 3The basic growth curve model had marginal fit (χ2 (1) = 13; CFI = .98; RMSEA = .068) with both initial level and change of happiness are all significant (initial level = 2.98**; change = −.10**).When estimated in three, both initial level and change of happiness remained significant with identical signs (initial level = 2.97**; change = −.067**)
  6. aThe effects of these two variables were estimated but very small because of original measurement scale. Hence, they were not presented here
  7. bThe effects of these two variables on the change of happiness are not estimated because these effects caused model estimation problems due to very small effect