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Table 3 Results of modified Poisson regressions predicting hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥8)

From: Predicting hazardous drinking in late adolescence/young adulthood from early and excessive adolescent drinking - a longitudinal cross-national study of Norwegian and Australian adolescents

  Hazardous drinking Hazardous drinking
(AUDIT ≥8) Norway (AUDIT ≥8) Australia
Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b
PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI)
Individual variables
 EOD relative to abstinent (a) 1.78 (1.39–2.30)*** 1.63 (1.25–2.13)*** 2.18 (1.35–3.51)** 1.69 (1.03–2.78)*
 EOE relative to abstinent (a) 2.10 (1.52–2.66)*** 1.76 (1.19–2.60)** 2.97 (1.84–4.78)*** 1.89 (1.12–3.16)*
 Impulsivity (a) (z) 1.18 (1.09–1.29)*** 1.07 (0.97–1.17)
 Hyperactivity (a) (z) 1.26 (1.13–1.42)*** 1.17 (1.03–1.33)*
 Conduct problems (a) (z) 1.24 (1.14–1.34)*** 1.11 (0.97–1.26) 1.10 (1.04–1.17)** 1.00 (0.93–1.07)
 Early sexual intercourse (a) 1.16 (0.79–1.71) 0.72 (0.48–1.08) 1.31 (1.01–1.70)* 1.06 (0.79–1.43)
 Smoking (a) 1.28 (1.01–1.63)* 0.92 (0.71–2.18) 1.66 (1.36–1.99)*** 1.31 (1.06–1.61)*
 Friends’ substance use (a) 1.31 (1.04–1.65)* 0.90 (0.69–1.19) 1.72 (1.28–2.33)*** 1.24 (0.89–1.72)
 Gender (girl = 0, boy =1) (a) 1.37 (1.09–1.72)** 1.36 (1.07–1.71)* 1.63 (1.36–1.95)*** 1.59 (1.33–1.89)***
 Age (m) (z) 1.00 (0.89–1.13) 0.98 (0.88–1.00) 1.00 (0.93–1.10) 0.92 (0.92–1.08)
Family variables
 Mother’s education (m) (z) 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 1.03 (0.92–1.16) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.06 (0.97–1.16)
 Poor family management (a) (z) 1.20 (1.07–1.34)** 1.02 (0.90–1.17) 1.24 (1.15–1.35)*** 1.11 (1.01–1.22)*
 Alcohol and drug use in the family (a) 1.51 (1.14–2.01)** 1.13 (0.82–1.53) 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 0.89 (0.69–1.15)
  1. Note. Variables are measured differently in the Norwegian and Australian samples and values are therefore not directly comparable
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. PR = Prevalence Ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval of PR
  3. (a) = adolescent self-report; (m) = mother’s report; (z) = standardized variables
  4. aSeparate analyses are conducted for each predictor, with control for age and gender. PR of age and gender are not controlled for covariates
  5. bAll predictor variables are included simultaneously