Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of individual and household level characteristics between those who reported diarrhea’ and those who presumably did not have diarrhea

From: Prevalence of diarrheal illness and healthcare-seeking behavior by age-group and sex among the population of Gaza strip: a community-based cross-sectional study

Variables Did not get diarrhea
n = 1436 (77%)
Got diarrhea
n = 421 (23%)
p-value
Binary variables
 Housing area
  Rural 390 (27.2) 221 (52.5) 0.001
  Urban 1046 (72.8) 200 (47.5)
 Marital status of the household head
  Married 1192 (83.0) 344 (81.7) 0.536
  Single 244 (17.0) 77 (18.3)
 Education level of household head
   Less educated 147 (10.2) 103 (24.5) 0.001
  High educated 1289 (89.8) 318 (75.5)
 Gender of household head
  Male 1255 (87.4) 366 (86.9) 0.803
  Female 181 (12.6) 55 (13.1)
 Career of household head
  Craftsman 510 (35.5) 162 (38.5) 0.266
  Public servant 926 (64.5) 259 (61.5)
 Monthly income of household
  Low income 740 (51.5) 168 (39.9) 0.001
  High income 696 (48.5) 253 (60.1)
 House ownership
  Owned 1323 (92.1) 399 (94.8) 0.066
  Rented 113 (7.9) 22 (5.2)
 Gender of person who had diarrhea
  Male 257 (61.0) 0.963
  Female 164 (39.0)
 Source of drinking water
  Non improved 462 (32.2) 148 (35.2) 0.252
  Improved 974 (67.8) 273 (64.8)
 Source of washing water
  Non improved 1405 (97.8) 409 (97.1) 0.407
   Improved 31 (2.2) 12 (2.9)
 Source of cooking water
  Non improved 758 (52.8) 237 (56.3) 0.204
  Improved 678 (47.2) 184 (43.7)
 Clean kitchen
  Yes 1244 (86.6) 128 (30.4) 0.001
  No 192 (13.4) 293 (69.6)
 Sanitary toilet
  Yes 1170 (81.5) 14 (3.3) 0.001
  No 266 (18.5) 407 (96.7)
 Kind of toilet
  Latrine with flush 960 (66.9) 31 (7.4) 0.001
  Latrine without flush 476 (33.1) 390 (92.6)
 Place of wastewater disposal
  Open area around the house 232 (16.2) 304 (72.2) 0.001
  Close sewerage system 1204 (83.8) 117 (27.8)
 Availability of soap for hands washing
  Yes 1078 (75.1) 189 (44.9) 0.001
  No 358 (24.9) 232 (55.1)
 Continuous variables
  Age of household head (years) 41.3 ± 13.3 (22–67) 41.5 ± 14 (22–67) 0.801
  Living in the area (years) 15.9 ± 10.5 (1–44) 15.5 ± 10.5 (1–44) 0.432
  Number of rooms in house 2.7 ± 0.9 (1–5) 2.7 ± 0.8 (1–5) 0.612
  Number of family Members 6.2 ± 1.7 (2–12) 6.2 ± 1.7 (2–12) 0.529
  Age of getting diarrhea 15.6 ± 16.5 (1–67)
  Number of children less than 5 in family 1.4 ± 0.7 (0–3) 1.5 ± 0.6 (0–3) 0.312
  Distance to healthcare center (km) 1.6 ± 0.8 (1–4) 1.6 ± 0.8 (1–4) 0.916
  1. For the continuous variables, the Mean ± SD (min-max) were presented instead of frequency and percentage as in the binary variables
  2. Chi-square test was used to examine the difference between the two groups