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Table 1 Comparison of Malaria and Lyme diseases epidemics in the US

From: Malaria and Lyme disease - the largest vector-borne US epidemics in the last 100 years: success and failure of public health

  Characteristics Malaria Lyme Disease
Transmission cycle and biology Vectors Anopheles mosquitoes Ixodes ticks
Reservoirs (transmission) Humans (human to human) Small rodents (enzootic)
Pathogens Protozoa (Plasmodium spp) Bacteria (Borrelia spp)
Vector longevity and pathogen persistence Short (days – months) Long (years)
Vector aggregation (habitat) Immature (wetlands) Adults (deer)
Geography Hyperendemic areas Deep South Northeast, upper Mid-West
# states 13 [10] 14 [11]
#counties 369 (in 1945) [10] 318 [11]
Populations at highest risk Rural Suburban
Control and prevention Main control and prevention methods Habitat modification, biological, insecticides Personal protection, backyard landscaping, public education
Spatial scale of control efforts Very large (state, country) Very small (personal, backyard)
Main target of preventative measures Mosquito vector Humans
Economics and organization Dedicated control agency Local mosquito control district, federal (WPA), private (Rockefeller institute) [12] None
Funding (in 2010 $) $58,278,544 ($6,315,000 in 1948, 3.65% inflation) [10] $73,620,756 (annual average 2005–10) [13]
Major expenditure Personnel, equipment, and supplies for control (> 90%) [10, 14] Academic and clinical research (87%) [13]
Jurisdiction over habitat State and local Public Health Laws, most publically owned Unclear, habitat mostly privately owned
Statistics and trends # infections reported/[estimated] 68,289/[278,000-695,000] in 1941 [15] 36,000/[296,000–376,000] annually in 2005–2010 [6]
US incidence rate 51.8/100,000 (1941) [15] 8.3/100,000 [11]
Incidence rates in hyperendemic areas 100–400/100,000 [16] 10–90/100,000 [11]
Peak mortality in the US > 4/100,000 or ≈ 5000 [17] Rare
Trends post discovery Declining, eradicated by 1950s Over 3-fold increase since 1990s